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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(MARK ONE)
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from          to
Commission File Number 001-41779
https://cdn.kscope.io/70fbd450b3fbf74076b22fe06e36695f-HH_secddedondary-logotype_2c_cmyk.jpg
HOWARD HUGHES HOLDINGS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware93-1869991
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
9950 Woodloch Forest Drive, Suite 1100, The Woodlands, Texas 77380
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (281) 719-6100

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class: Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share HHH New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerEmerging growth companyNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes   No
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $2.5 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
The number of shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding as of February 20, 2024 was 50,256,371.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The registrant intends to file its Proxy Statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.


TABLE OF CONTENTSPage


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K (Annual Report), references to the “Company,” “HHH,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Howard Hughes Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise. This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (Securities Act) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this Annual Report are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements give our current expectations relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance, or business. You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to current or historical facts. These statements may include words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “realize,” “should,” “transform,” “would,” and other statements of similar expression. Forward-looking statements should not be relied upon. They give our expectations about the future and are not guarantees.

Forward-looking statements include:

accelerated growth in our core Master Planned Communities (MPC) assets
expected performance of our stabilized, income-producing properties and the performance and stabilization timing of properties that we have recently placed into service or are under construction
forecasts of our future economic performance
expected capital required for our operations and development opportunities for our properties
impact of technology on our operations and business
expected performance of our segments
expected commencement and completion for property developments and timing of sales or rentals of certain properties
estimates of our future liquidity, development opportunities, development spending and management plans
the potential impact of a resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, our tenants and the economy in general, and our ability to accurately assess and predict such impacts on the financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance of our Company; and
descriptions of assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing

These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance and achievements to materially differ from any future results, performance and achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements include:

our ability to satisfy the necessary conditions to complete the spinoff on a timely basis, or at all
our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the spinoff
the effects of the spinoff on our ongoing business
macroeconomic conditions such as volatility in capital markets, and a prolonged recession in the national economy, including any adverse business or economic conditions in the homebuilding, condominium-development, retail, and office sectors
our inability to obtain operating and development capital, including our inability to obtain or refinance debt capital from lenders and the capital markets
rising interest rates and inflation
the availability of debt and equity capital
our ability to successfully identify, acquire, develop and/or manage properties on terms that are favorable to us
our ability to compete effectively, including the potential impact of heightened competition for tenants and potential decreases in occupancy at our properties
general inflation, including core and wage inflation; commodity and energy price and currency volatility; as well as monetary, fiscal and policy interventions in anticipation of our reaction to such events, including increases in interest rates
mismatch of supply and demand, including interruptions of supply lines
extreme weather conditions or climate change, including natural disasters, that may cause property damage or interrupt business
the impact of a resurgence of COVID-19 on our businesses, our tenants and the economy, including as described above
contamination of our property by hazardous or toxic substances
terrorist activity, acts of violence, or breaches of our data security
losses that are not insured or exceed the applicable insurance limits
our ability to lease new or redeveloped space
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our ability to obtain the necessary governmental permits for the development of our properties and necessary regulatory approvals pursuant to an extensive entitlement process involving multiple and overlapping regulatory jurisdictions, which often require discretionary action by local governments
increased construction costs exceeding our original estimates, delays or overruns, claims for construction defects, or other factors affecting our ability to develop, redevelop or construct our properties
regulation of the portion of our business that is dedicated to the formation and sale of condominiums, including regulatory filings to state agencies, additional entitlement processes and requirements to transfer control to a condominium association’s board of directors in certain situations, as well as potential defaults by purchasers on their obligations to purchase condominiums
fluctuations in regional and local economies, the impact of changes in interest rates on residential housing and condominium markets, local real estate conditions, tenant rental rates, and competition from competing retail properties and the internet
inherent risks related to disruption of information technology networks and related systems, including cyber security attacks
our ability to attract and retain key personnel
our ability to collect rent and attract tenants
our indebtedness, including our $750,000,000 5.375% Senior Notes due 2028, $650,000,000 4.125% Senior Notes due 2029 and $650,000,000 4.375% Senior Notes due 2031, contain restrictions that may limit our ability to operate our business
our directors’ involvement or interests in other businesses, including real estate activities and investments
our inability to control certain of our properties due to the joint ownership of such property and our inability to successfully attract desirable strategic partners
catastrophic events or geopolitical conditions, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence of different variants that may disrupt our business; and
the other risks described in Item 1. Business, Item 1A. Risk Factors and Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Annual Report

Any factor could, by itself, or together with one or more other factors, adversely affect our business, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance, or financial condition. Other factors not described in this Annual Report also could cause results to differ from our expectations. Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements present our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this Annual Report. Except as may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to modify or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Annual Report.

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PART I

Item 1.  Business 

OVERVIEW

General On July 17, 2023, The Howard Hughes Corporation (HHC) announced that its Board of Directors authorized the creation of a holding company structure. On August 11, 2023, upon the consummation of the transaction, Howard Hughes Holdings Inc. (HHH or the Company), the new holding company, replaced HHC as the public company trading on the New York Stock Exchange. Existing shares of common stock of HHC were automatically converted, on a one-for-one basis, into shares of common stock of HHH, with the same designations, rights, powers, and preferences, and the same qualifications, limitations, and restrictions, as the shares of HHC common stock immediately prior to the reorganization. HHH became the successor issuer to HHC pursuant to Rule 12g-3 (a) under the Exchange Act and replaced HHC as the public company trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "HHH." The holding company reorganization is intended to be a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the Company’s stockholders. The Board and the executive officers of HHC now hold their same roles at HHH. The Company believes that the reorganization will promote the growth of its businesses by providing additional flexibility to fund future investment opportunities and to segregate assets and related liabilities in separate subsidiaries.

References to HHH, the Company, we, us, and our refer to Howard Hughes Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, which includes The Howard Hughes Corporation, unless otherwise specifically stated. References to HHC refer to The Howard Hughes Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries unless otherwise specifically stated.

Seaport Entertainment On October 5, 2023, HHH announced the intent to form a new division, Seaport Entertainment, that is expected to include the Company’s entertainment-related assets in New York and Las Vegas, including the Seaport in Lower Manhattan, the Las Vegas Aviators Triple-A Minor League Baseball team, and the Las Vegas Ballpark, as well as the Company’s ownership stake in Jean-Georges Restaurants and other partnerships and its 80% interest in the air rights above the Fashion Show Mall in Las Vegas.

HHH is establishing Seaport Entertainment with the intention of completing its spinoff as an independent, publicly traded company in 2024, but there can be no assurance regarding the ultimate timing of the spinoff or that the spinoff will ultimately occur. The planned separation of Seaport Entertainment will refine the identity of HHH as a pure-play real estate company focused solely on its portfolio of master planned communities and allow the new company, Seaport Entertainment, to operate independently as an entertainment-focused enterprise.

Business Overview The Company’s award-winning assets include one of the nation's largest portfolios of master planned communities (MPCs) spanning approximately 101,000 gross acres, as well as operating properties, strategic developments, and other unique assets across six states from New York to Hawai‘i. We create some of the most sought-after communities in the country by curating an environment tailored to meet the needs of our residents and tenants. Our unique business model allows us to drive outsized risk-adjusted returns while maintaining a sharp focus on sustainability to ensure our communities are equipped with the resources to last several decades.

We operate through four business segments: Operating Assets, MPCs, Strategic Developments, and Seaport. We create a unique and continuous value-creation cycle through operational and financial synergies associated with our three primary business segments of Operating Assets, MPCs, and Strategic Developments. In our MPC segment, we plan, develop, and manage small cities and large-scale, mixed-use communities in markets with strong long-term growth fundamentals. This business focuses on the horizontal development of residential land. The improved acreage is then sold to homebuilders who build and sell homes to new residents. New homeowners create demand for commercial developments, such as retail, office, and multi-family offerings. We build these commercial properties through Strategic Developments at the appropriate time using the cash flow harvested from the sale of land to homebuilders, which helps mitigate development risk. Once the commercial developments are completed, the assets transition to Operating Assets, which increase recurring Net Operating Income (NOI), further funding our Strategic Developments. New office, retail, and other commercial amenities make our MPC residential land more appealing to buyers and increase the velocity of land sales at premiums that typically exceed the broader market. This increased demand for residential land generates more cash flow from MPCs, thus continuing the value-creation cycle. Our fourth business segment, Seaport, is one of the few multi-block districts largely under private management by a single owner in New York City.

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Our assets are located across the United States, with the vast majority of the assets in our Operating Assets segment located within our MPCs. This helps us achieve scale and, in most cases, critical mass, which leads to pricing power in lease and vendor negotiations; increased ability to attract, hire, and retain the best local leadership and leasing teams; flexibility to meet changing customer demands; and enhanced ability to identify and capitalize on emerging opportunities. Our MPCs, including our Floreo joint venture, span approximately 101,000 gross acres, with approximately 22,000 residential acres of land remaining to be developed and sold in high-demand geographic areas. In addition to the residential land, our MPC segment contains approximately 13,000 acres designated for commercial development or sale to non-competing users such as hospitals. This land is held in our MPC segment until we identify demand for a new commercial development, at which point the land is transitioned into our Strategic Developments segment.

HHH was incorporated in Delaware on August 11, 2023, and its predecessor, HHC, was incorporated in Delaware on July 1, 2010. Financial information about each of our segments is presented in Note 18 - Segments in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Our Competitive Strengths

We distinguish ourselves from other real estate companies through the following competitive strengths:
Track Record of Value Creation. We have completed the development of 7.5 million square feet of office and retail operating properties, 5,194 multi-family units, and 909 hospitality keys since 2011. Excluding land which we own, we have invested approximately $3.2 billion in these developments, which is projected to generate a 9.0% yield on cost, a significant spread over market cap rates which, in turn, has generated meaningful value for our shareholders. These investments and returns exclude condominium development as well as projects under construction. We exclude condominium developments since they do not result in recurring NOI, and we exclude projects under development due to the wider range of NOI they are expected to generate upon stabilization. In Ward Village, we have either opened or have under construction 4,287 condominium units, which have approximately 99.2% units sold as of December 31, 2023.

Unique, Diverse Portfolio. We own a portfolio with many diverse market-leading assets with a combination of steady cash flow and longer-term value creation opportunities.

Significant Value Creation Opportunity. We have an exceptional development pipeline with over 100 million square feet of vertical entitlements remaining across our portfolio. This represents approximately 13 times the 7.5 million square feet we have delivered in the last 13 years without having to acquire another development site or external asset, which we believe is a significant competitive advantage over other real estate development corporations.

Flexible Balance Sheet. We ended the year with $631.5 million of cash on hand. As of December 31, 2023, our total debt equaled approximately 55.4% of the book value of our total assets, which we believe is significantly less than our market value. Our net debt, which includes our share of debt of unconsolidated ventures less cash and Special Improvement District (SID) and Municipal Utility District (MUD) receivables, equaled approximately 46.1% of our total enterprise value. Unconsolidated ventures refer to partnerships or joint ventures primarily for the development and operation of real estate assets. Our strong balance sheet provides substantial insulation against potential downturns and provides us with the flexibility to evaluate new real estate project opportunities.

Self-Funded Business Plan. One of our key differentiators is our ability to self-fund significant portions of our new development without having to dispose of our recently completed developments. Our residential land sales, recurring NOI, and profits on the sales of condominium units generate substantial amounts of free cash flow, which is used to fund the equity required to execute our many development opportunities. Furthermore, we are not required to pay dividends, nor are we restricted from investing in any asset type, amenity, or service, unlike many other real estate companies, which are limited in their activities because they have elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (REIT). We believe our structure currently provides us with significant financial and operating flexibility to maximize the value of our real estate portfolio.

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Competition

The nature and extent of our competition depends on the type of property involved. With respect to our Operating Assets segment and our Landlord Operations within the Seaport segment, we primarily compete for retail, office, and multi-family tenants. We believe the principal factors that retailers consider in making their leasing decisions include: (1) consumer demographics; (2) age, quality, design, and location of properties; (3) neighboring real estate projects that have been developed or that we, or others, may develop in the future; (4) diversity of retailers and anchor tenants at shopping center locations; (5) management and operational expertise; and (6) rental rates. The principal factors influencing tenant leasing decisions for our office space include: (1) rental rates; (2) attractive views; (3) amenities; (4) walkable retail; (5) commute time; (6) efficiency of space; and (7) demographics of the available workforce. For residential tenants of our multi-family properties in our Operating Assets segment, we believe the principal factors that impact their decision of where to live are: (1) walkability/proximity to work; (2) amenities; and (3) the best value for their money.

With respect to our MPC segment, we compete with other landholders and residential and commercial property developers primarily in the development of properties within Las Vegas, Nevada; the greater Houston, Texas area; and Phoenix, Arizona markets. Significant factors that we believe allow us to compete effectively in this business include:
the size and scope of our MPCs
our strong reputation within the industry and years of experience serving our communities
the recreational and cultural amenities available within our communities
the commercial centers in our communities, including the properties that we own and/or operate or may develop
our relationships with homebuilders
our level of debt relative to total assets
the proximity of our developments to major metropolitan areas

With respect to the Managed Businesses and Events & Sponsorships within our Seaport segment, the restaurant and event industry is intensely competitive with respect to the type and quality of food, price, service, restaurant, or event location, personnel, brand, attractiveness of facilities, availability of carryout and home delivery, internet and mobile ordering capabilities, and effectiveness of advertising and marketing. We compete in the New York area for guests, management, and hourly personnel.

With respect to our Strategic Developments segment our direct competitors include other commercial property developers and other owners of commercial real estate that engage in similar businesses. With respect to our Strategic Developments segment, we also compete with residential condominium developers. With significant existing entitlements, we hold an advantage over many of our competitors in our markets in that we already own or have significant influence over, substantial acreage for development. We also own the majority of square feet of each product type in many of our markets.

Available Information

Our website address is www.howardhughes.com. The 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K of our subsidiary, The Howard Hughes Corporation, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and other publicly filed documents, including all exhibits filed therewith, are available and may be accessed free of charge through the Investors section of our website under the SEC Filings subsection, as soon as reasonably practicable after those documents are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC at www.sec.gov. Also available through the Investors section of our website are reports filed by our directors and executive officers on Forms 3, 4, and 5, and amendments to those reports. Our website and included or linked information on the website are not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. From time to time, we use our website as an additional means of disclosing public information to investors, the media, and others interested in us.

BUSINESS SEGMENTS

The following further describes our four business segments and provides a general description of the assets comprising these segments. Refer to Item 2. Properties for additional detail on individual properties, including assets by reportable segment, geographic location, and predominant use at December 31, 2023. This section should be referred to when reading Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, which contains information about our financial results and operating performance for our business segments.

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Operating Assets

We have developed many of the assets in our Operating Assets segment since the Company’s inception in 2010. As of December 31, 2023, we have 73 Operating Assets, including our investments in unconsolidated ventures, consisting of 11 retail properties, 34 office properties, 17 multi-family properties, and 11 other operating properties or investments. Excluding our projects under construction, we own approximately 8.8 million square feet of retail and office space and 5,587 multi-family units.

We believe that the long-term value of our Operating Assets is driven by their concentration in our MPCs, where we have a competitive advantage. We believe that these assets have the potential for future growth by increasing rental rates, absorbing remaining vacancy, and changing the tenant mix in retail centers to improve gross sales revenue of our tenants, thereby increasing rents. Revenue is primarily generated through rental services and is directly impacted by trends in rental rates and operating costs.

We will also occasionally sell an operating asset when it does not complement our existing properties or no longer fits within our current strategy. In 2023, the Company completed the sale of two land parcels in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, including an 11,929-square-foot building at the Ward Village Retail property, as well as two self-storage facilities and a medical office building in The Woodlands, for total net proceeds after debt repayment of $43.3 million.

For certain assets, we believe there are opportunities to improve operating performance through redevelopment or repositioning. Redevelopment plans for these assets may include office, retail, or residential space, shopping centers, movie theaters, parking complexes, or open space. The redevelopment plans may require that we obtain permits, licenses, consents, and/or waivers from various parties. These opportunities will require new capital investment and vary in complexity and scale. The redevelopment opportunities range from those that would have minimal disruption to the property to those requiring partial or full demolition of existing structures for new construction. Factors we evaluate in determining whether to redevelop or reposition an asset include the following: (1) existing and forecasted demographics surrounding the property; (2) competition related to existing and/or alternative uses; (3) existing entitlements of the property and our ability to change them; (4) compatibility of the physical site with proposed uses; and (5) environmental considerations, traffic patterns, and access to the properties.

We generally transfer an operating asset that is being repositioned or redeveloped into our Strategic Developments segment when we close operations at a property and/or begin construction on the redevelopment project. Upon completion of construction or renovation of a development or redevelopment, the asset is fully or partially placed in service and transferred back into our Operating Assets segment.

Master Planned Communities

As of December 31, 2023, our portfolio of MPCs comprises Summerlin in Las Vegas; The Woodlands, The Woodlands Hills and Bridgeland in the Houston region; and Teravalis in the Phoenix region. Our MPC segment includes the development and sale of residential and commercial land, primarily in large-scale, long-term projects. These developments often require decades of investment and continued focus on the changing market dynamics surrounding these communities. We believe that the long-term value of our MPCs remains strong because of their competitive positioning in their respective markets, our in-depth experience in diverse land-use planning, and the fact that we have substantially completed the entitlement processes within the majority of our communities.

Our MPCs have won numerous awards for design excellence and for community contribution. Summerlin and Bridgeland were again ranked by Robert Charles Lesser & Co., LLC (RCLCO), capturing fourth and fifth top-selling master planned communities in the nation, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2023.

We expect the competitive position, desirable locations, and land development expertise to drive the long-term growth of our MPCs. As of December 31, 2023, our MPCs, including Floreo, our unconsolidated joint venture near Phoenix, Arizona, encompass approximately 101,000 gross acres of land and include approximately 35,000 acres of land available for sale or development. Residential sales, which are generated primarily from the sale of finished lots and undeveloped superpads to residential homebuilders and developers, include standard and custom parcels designated for detached and attached single-family homes and range from entry-level to luxury homes. Superpad sites are generally 10- to 25-acre parcels of unimproved land where we develop and construct the major utilities (water, sewer, and storm drainage) and roads to the borders of the parcel, and the homebuilder completes the on-site utilities, roads, and finished lots. Revenue is also generated through builder price participation with homebuilders.

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We also occasionally sell or lease land for commercial development when we deem its use will not compete with our existing properties or our development strategy. Commercial sales include land parcels designated for retail, office, hospitality, high-density residential projects (condominiums and apartments), services, and other for-profit activities, as well as those parcels designated for use by government, schools, and other not-for-profit entities.

Seaport

On October 5, 2023, HHH announced the intent to form a new division, Seaport Entertainment, that is expected to include all of the assets in the Seaport segment, as well as the Las Vegas Aviators Triple-A Minor League Baseball team, the Las Vegas Ballpark, and our 80% interest in the air rights above the Fashion Show Mall in Las Vegas. HHH is establishing Seaport Entertainment with the intention of completing its spinoff as an independent, publicly traded company in 2024, but there can be no assurance regarding the ultimate timing of the spinoff or that the spinoff will ultimately occur.

The Seaport spans approximately 472,000 square feet and several city blocks, including Pier 17, the Tin Building, the Historic District, and the 250 Water Street development. Our Seaport segment is part non-stabilized operating asset, part development project, and part operating business. Due to this range of asset types, we categorize the businesses in the Seaport segment into the following groups: Landlord Operations, Managed Businesses, the Tin Building, and Events and Sponsorships.

Strategic Developments

Our Strategic Developments segment consists of 18 development or redevelopment projects, including developments within our MPCs that will transition to Operating Assets upon completion and condominium towers at Ward Village. Many of these developments require extensive planning and expertise in large-scale and long-range development to maximize their highest and best uses. The strategic process is complex and unique to each asset and requires ongoing assessment of the changing market dynamics prior to the commencement of construction. We must study each local market, determine the highest and best use of the land and necessary improvements to the area, obtain entitlements and permits, complete architectural design and construction drawings, secure tenant commitments, and obtain and commit sources of capital.

We are in various stages of predevelopment or execution of our strategic plans for many of these assets based on market conditions. As of December 31, 2023, seven properties are under construction and not yet placed into service. We generally obtain construction financing to fund a significant amount of the costs associated with developing these assets.

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ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE (ESG)

Our expansive portfolio and tremendous scale give HHH a unique opportunity to build next-generation communities and make a meaningful, positive impact on people’s lives at a local, regional, and national level. We are acutely aware of the responsibility that comes along with that opportunity. Building on our reputation for excellence and innovation, we remain focused on making our developments sustainable; giving back to our communities; protecting our landscapes; supporting inclusivity; and establishing communities that create value and well-being for generations to come.

Acknowledging the power of our scale, as well as the opportunities for taking climate action, we are amplifying and accelerating our efforts to further advance resiliency, conservation, innovation, and inclusion throughout our large-scale, mixed-use communities. We have aligned our community strategies to support the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals, defined by the UN as the blueprint for achieving a better and more sustainable future for all. This framework helps us view our people-centric approach to development and management through the global lens of our planet’s most pressing issues.

Our program is overseen by our chief executive officer, president, and board of directors. Additional details on our sustainable, inclusive, and transparent approach are available in our latest ESG annual report now called the Communities Report, which can be found on the Company’s website (https://www.howardhughes.com/communities/). This annual report, published in October 2023, looks at the collective efforts of our team in 2022. It reflects each business segment and region across our national portfolio of MPCs, Strategic Developments, Operating Assets, and the Seaport. Our disclosure is in reference to the Global Reporting Initiative’s 2021 Standards. Prior to this report, our most recent Communities report was published in November 2022 and covered calendar year 2021.

Environmental Strategy and Performance

The guiding principle that drives the development of our award-winning master planned communities is, ‘How you live, how we build’. HHH operates one of the nation's largest portfolios of large-scale, mixed-use master planned communities, including The Woodlands in Texas, which in 2022 became the world's largest master planned community to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Precertification for excellence in sustainable development. Ward Village was honored and recognized as the top LEED developer in Hawai'i with the most LEED-certified and registered green buildings in the state.

Each community manages and addresses its unique context through resilient planning, green building design, high operational performance, and ongoing risk management. We continue to monitor and refine our approach as developments transition into operating assets in order to ensure continued support for the responsible use of resources, conservation, and efficiency measures. From an operational standpoint, we measure energy, water, emissions, and waste performance and proactively pursue efforts to reduce our impact across our portfolio. These efforts align with UN Sustainable Development Goals, which focus on climate health and responsible resource stewardship. We complement this holistic approach with programs and actions customized for the age, asset type, and regional considerations of our diverse properties. Data-driven analysis, engineering insights, and occupant feedback drive unique strategies for each of our buildings.

In 2017, we set 10-year environmentally focused goals for reductions in energy use, water use, waste, and carbon emissions. We report our progress against these goals annually in our Communities Report and leverage industry leadership programs to benchmark and certify environmental performance. Our report highlighted our management of climate-related risks and opportunities in line with the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) recommendations. Annually, we work with DNV Business Assurance USA, Inc. to externally confirm our energy consumption, water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste data. LEED, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ENERGY STAR, and BOMA 360 certifications validate our use of sustainable design, construction, and operations principles that result in reduced resource usage, decreased emissions and better well-being for building occupants. We have 94 active or pending building and community green certifications.

In 2023, Marlow, a multi-family asset in Columbia, received the highest level for green building certification at LEED Platinum, the 1700 Pavilion office building in Summerlin achieved LEED Silver, and Creekside Park Medical Plaza in The Woodlands achieved LEED Gold. HHH leveraged our green building strategy to execute sustainability-linked financial instruments, and our sustainability platform was featured in three industry reports and six thought-leadership conferences.


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Social Strategy and Impact

Human Capital As of December 31, 2023, our workforce was made up of approximately 608 employees who form the bedrock of our core operations. Another 187 individuals, including seasonal staff, deliver operational excellence at the Las Vegas Ballpark during ongoing events, merchandising operations, and other Aviators activities.

Beyond our commitment to community building, we create spaces for our employees to thrive, both within and beyond their professional lives. We actively cultivate a culture of learning throughout our organization. Opportunities for ongoing development include resources like tuition reimbursement, student debt management assistance, financial wellness courses, and dedicated budgets for training. We prioritize personal well-being through comprehensive programs tailored to employees and their families across all life stages. These programs encompass a robust health benefits package and wellness discount, a 401k match program, up to 12 weeks of fully paid parental leave, support for adoption and surrogacy services, commuter benefits, and even pet care insurance.

In 2023, we elevated our efforts in enhancing our workplace culture, fostering inclusivity, and promoting opportunities for all. Throughout the past year, all employees across regions, levels, and departments had access to 20 unique opportunities to participate actively and learn about the Company’s culture, market positioning, and community involvement. We also saw an increase in job or location-specific growth and training programs developed by subject matter experts, which were offered to relevant groups of employees. These efforts support our goal to attract, develop, and retain world-class talent that ultimately drives performance and sustains excellence. In addition to equitable access to professional and personal development opportunities, we invest in active internal networks for connection and strategic partnerships for talent acquisition. We continue to invest in attracting a qualified and well-rounded candidate pool. For early career employees, our 2023 internship population was over 60% female. As of December 31, 2023, our full-time workforce was 52% female and 36% ethnically diverse. Employees at a Vice President level or above were 37% female and 19% ethnically diverse. Our dedication to building teams with unique strengths and perspectives remains unwavering.

In addition to our focus on our employees, we are highly attuned to how we impact the lives of those within our communities, and we support over 220 local charities through monetary donations and volunteerism within our HHCares program. In 2023, the Company donated over $2.6 million nationwide, including over $250,000 of individual employee donations and company matches to registered 501c3 non-profit organizations. Our employees also donated nearly 2,800 hours of volunteer time throughout 2023. At HHH, we recognize that our people are the foundation of our communities, and we are committed to holistically supporting them.

Governance and Risk Management

In order to identify, monitor, and mitigate potential risks that could impact our organization and investors, HHH has made governance and risk management a top Board priority. As part of our corporate governance framework, we have a formal Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Program that is overseen by the Board’s Risk Committee and led by our Risk Management team. The Risk Committee helps to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERM Program and the performance of the Risk Management team. It also reviews and monitors risks that have been identified and are considered critical by management, such as capital, market, liquidity, legal, regulatory, operational, reputational, and strategic risks. The Risk Committee reviews and approves periodic risk assessment results and reviews risk mitigation activities deemed material by management. The Risk Committee also reviews risk mitigation activities for emerging risks and oversees management’s approach to fostering a risk-intelligent culture. Additionally, the Risk Committee identifies key risk topics to refer to the Board for further analysis and decision-making.

HHH’s program is shaped and supported by the Board and encompasses a range of corporate governance policies and guidelines that include but are not limited to: Anti-Corruption Compliance Policy, Board Diversity Policy, Cybersecurity Policy, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Officers and Employees, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for the Board of Directors, Corporate Governance Guidelines, and Insider Trading Policy. These policies and our Human Rights Policy are published on the Company’s website (https://investor.howardhughes.com/governance/governance-documents).

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REGULATORY MATTERS

A portion of our business is dedicated to the development and sale of condominiums. Condominiums are generally regulated by an agency of the state in which they are located or where the condominiums are marketed to be sold. In connection with our development and offering of condominium units for sale, we must submit regulatory filings to various state agencies and engage in an entitlement process by which real property owned under one title is converted into individual units. Responses or comments on our condominium filings may delay our ability to sell condominiums in certain states and other jurisdictions in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, approval to develop real property sometimes requires political support and generally entails an extensive entitlement process involving multiple and overlapping regulatory jurisdictions and often requires discretionary action by local governments. Real estate projects must generally comply with local land development regulations and may need to comply with state and federal regulations. We incur substantial costs to comply with legal and regulatory requirements.

Various local, state, and federal statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations concerning building, health and safety, site and building design, environment, zoning, sales and similar matters apply to and/or affect the real estate development industry. Our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained depends on factors beyond our control, such as changes in federal, state, and local policies, rules and regulations, and their interpretations and application.

There is a variety of legislation being enacted, or considered for enactment, at the federal, state, and local levels relating to energy and climate change. This legislation relates to items such as carbon dioxide emissions control and building codes that impose energy efficiency standards. New building code requirements that impose stricter energy efficiency standards could significantly increase our cost to construct buildings. As climate change concerns continue to grow, legislation and regulations of this nature are expected to continue and become more costly to comply with. We may be required to apply for additional approvals or modify our existing approvals because of changes in local circumstances or applicable law. Energy-related initiatives affect a wide variety of companies throughout the United States and the world and, because our operations are heavily dependent on significant amounts of raw materials, such as lumber, steel, and concrete, they could have an indirect adverse impact on our operations and profitability to the extent the manufacturers and suppliers of our materials are burdened with expensive cap and trade and similar energy-related taxes and regulations. Governmental regulation also affects sales activities, mortgage lending activities, and other dealings with consumers. Further, government agencies routinely initiate audits, reviews, or investigations of our business practices to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, which can cause us to incur costs or create other disruptions in our business that can be significant. We may experience delays and increased expenses as a result of legal challenges to our proposed communities, whether brought by governmental authorities or private parties.

Under various federal, state, and local laws and regulations, an owner of real estate is liable for the costs of remediation of certain hazardous substances, including petroleum and certain toxic substances (collectively hazardous substances) on such real estate. These laws often impose such liability without regard to whether the owner knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous substances. The costs of remediation of such substances may be substantial, and the presence of such substances, or the failure to remediate such substances, may adversely affect the owner’s ability to sell such real estate or to obtain financing using such real estate as collateral. Other federal, state, and local laws, ordinances and regulations require abatement or removal of asbestos-containing materials in the event of demolition or certain renovations or remodeling, the cost of which may be substantial for certain redevelopments, and also govern emissions of and exposure to asbestos fibers in the air. Federal and state laws also regulate the operation and removal of underground storage tanks. In connection with our ownership, operation, and management of certain properties, we could be held liable for the costs of remedial action with respect to these regulated substances or tanks or related claims.

For further information see Governance and Risk Management above.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we deem currently to be material, and do not represent all of the risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider material may in the future become material and impair our business operations. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business could be materially harmed, and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by the following:

RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDUSTRY, MARKET AND CUSTOMERS

Our performance and the market value of our securities are subject to risks associated with our investments in real estate assets and with trends in the real estate industry.

Our economic performance and the value of our real estate assets, and consequently the market value of the Company’s securities, are subject to the risk that our properties may not generate revenues sufficient to meet our operating expenses or other obligations. A deficiency of this nature would adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, the quoted trading price of our securities, and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations.

A downturn in the housing market or decline in general economic conditions could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operations.

We believe that new home sales are an important indicator of future demand for our superpad sites, lots, and condominium units. Demand for new homes is sensitive to changes in economic conditions such as the level of employment, consumer confidence, consumer income, the availability of financing, and interest rate levels. The prior economic downturn severely affected both the number of homes that could be sold in our MPCs and the prices for which homebuilders could sell them. We cannot predict when another economic downturn in the housing market will occur. If there were another economic downturn in the housing market or in general economic conditions, the resulting decline in demand for new homes and condominium units would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our condominium sales are sensitive to interest rates and the ability of consumers to obtain mortgage financing.

The ability of the ultimate buyers of condominiums to finance their purchases is generally dependent on their personal savings and availability of third-party financing. Consequently, the demand for condominiums could be adversely affected by increases in interest rates (which generally rose in 2022 and 2023), unavailability of mortgage financing, increasing housing costs, and unemployment levels. Levels of income and savings, including retirement savings, available to condominium purchasers can be affected by declines in the capital markets. Any significant increase in the mortgage interest rates or decrease in available credit could reduce consumer demand for housing, and result in fewer condominium sales, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Purchasers may default on their obligations to purchase condominiums.

We enter into contracts for the sale of condominium units that generally provide for the payment of a substantial portion of the sales price at closing when a condominium unit is ready to be delivered and occupied. A significant amount of time may pass between the execution of a contract for the purchase of a condominium unit and the closing thereof. The rate of defaults may increase from historical levels due to the personal finances of purchasers being negatively impacted as a result of changing macroeconomic and other conditions, including slow growth or recession, higher interest rates, high unemployment, inflation, and/or tighter credit. Defaults by purchasers to pay any remaining portions of the sales prices for condominium units under contract may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Downturn in tenants’ businesses may reduce our revenues and cash flows.

A tenant may experience a downturn in its business, due to a variety of factors including rising inflation or supply chain issues, which may weaken its financial condition and result in its failure to make timely rental payments or result in defaults under our leases. The rate of defaults may increase from historical levels due to tenants’ businesses being negatively impacted by higher interest rates. In the event of default by a tenant, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as the landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment.

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We may be negatively impacted by the consolidation or closing of anchor stores.

Many of our mixed-used properties are anchored by “big box” tenants. We could be adversely affected if these or other anchor stores were to consolidate, close, or enter into bankruptcy. Given the current economic environment for certain retailers, there is a heightened risk an anchor store could close or enter into bankruptcy. Any losses resulting from the bankruptcy of any of our existing tenants could adversely impact our financial condition. Even if we own the anchor space, we may be unable to re-lease this area or to re-lease it on comparable terms. The loss of these revenues could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. Further, the temporary or permanent loss of any anchor would likely reduce customer traffic in the retail center, which could lead to decreased sales at other retail stores. Rents obtained from other tenants may be adversely impacted as a result of co-tenancy clauses in their leases. One or more of these factors could cause the retail center to fail to meet its debt service requirements. The consolidation of anchor stores may also negatively affect lease negotiations and current and future development projects.

We may be unable to renew leases or re-lease available space.

We cannot provide any assurance that existing leases will be renewed, available space will be re-leased, or that our rental rates will be equal to or above the current rental rates. If the average rental rates for our properties decrease, existing tenants do not renew their leases, or available space is not re-leased, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations at the affected properties could be adversely affected.

Significant competition could have an adverse effect on our business.

The nature and extent of the competition we face depend on the type of property. With respect to our MPCs, we compete with other landholders and residential and commercial property developers in the development of properties in the respective MPC regions. Numerous residential and commercial developers, some with greater financial and other resources, compete with us in seeking resources for development and prospective purchasers and tenants. Competition from other real estate developers may adversely affect our ability to attract purchasers and sell residential and commercial real estate, sell undeveloped rural land, attract and retain experienced real estate development personnel, or obtain construction materials and labor. These competitive conditions can make it difficult to sell land at desirable prices and can adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

There are numerous shopping facilities that compete with our operating retail properties in attracting retailers to lease space. In addition, retailers at these properties face continued competition from other retailers, including internet retailers, retailers at other regional shopping centers, outlet malls and other discount shopping centers, discount shopping clubs, and catalog companies. Competition of this type could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we compete with other major real estate investors with significant capital for attractive investment and development opportunities. These competitors include REITs and private institutional investors.

The concentration of our properties in certain states may make our revenues and the value of our assets vulnerable to adverse changes in local economic conditions.

Many of the properties we own are located in the same or in a limited number of geographic regions, including Texas, Hawai‘i, Nevada, New York, and Maryland. In October 2021, we announced the launch of Teravalis, a new large-scale master planned community in the West Valley of Phoenix, Arizona. Our current and future operations at the properties in these states are generally subject to significant fluctuations by various factors that are beyond our control such as the regional and local economy, which may be negatively impacted by material relocation by residents, industry slowdowns, plant closings, increased unemployment, lack of availability of consumer credit, levels of consumer debt, housing market conditions, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, climate change and other factors, as well as the local real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of, or a reduction in demand for, retail space or retail goods and the availability and creditworthiness of current and prospective tenants.

In addition, some of our properties are subject to various other factors specific to those geographic areas. For example, tourism is a major component of both the local economies in Hawai‘i and Nevada. Ward Village, which is located in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, and Summerlin, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada, may be impacted by the local and global tourism industry. These properties are susceptible to many factors that affect travel and tourism related to Hawai‘i and Las Vegas, including cost and availability of air services and the impact of any events that disrupt air travel to and from these regions. Moreover, these properties may be affected by risks such as acts of terrorism and natural disasters, including major fires, floods, and earthquakes, as well as severe or inclement weather, which could also decrease tourism activity in Las Vegas or Hawai‘i.

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Further, Summerlin is to some degree dependent on the gaming industry, which could be adversely affected by changes in consumer trends and preferences and other factors over which we have no control. The gaming industry is characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants, including riverboat casinos, dockside casinos, land-based casinos, video lottery, sweepstakes, and poker machines, many of which are located outside of Las Vegas. Furthermore, competition from internet lotteries, sweepstakes, and other internet-wagering gaming services, which allow their customers to wager on a wide variety of sporting events and play Las Vegas-style casino games from home or in non-casino settings, could negatively impact the population in the Las Vegas area.

Markets and the local economies surrounding our properties in Columbia, Maryland are heavily influenced by government spending and activity. A reduction of government spending in this market generally could decrease the demand for housing and retail space in this geographic region.

The Woodlands, The Woodlands Hills, and Bridgeland in the Houston, Texas region depend significantly on the energy sector. Our success depends to a large extent upon the business activity, population, income levels, employment trends, and real estate activity in and around Houston, Texas. In the event that oil prices fall and remain depressed for a sustained period, demand may decrease for housing and commercial space in The Woodlands, Bridgeland, and The Woodlands Hills.

Additionally, the success of Summerlin, our master planned community in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Teravalis, our new master planned community in the Phoenix, Arizona region, may be negatively impacted by changes in temperature due to climate change, increased stress on water supplies caused by climate change and population growth and other factors over which we have no control.

If any or all of the factors discussed above were to occur and result in our inability to sell or lease our residential and commercial property in any of these geographic regions, it would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business model includes entering into joint venture arrangements with strategic partners, and our strategic partners may have different interests than us.

We currently have and intend to enter into additional joint venture partnerships. These joint venture partners may bring local market knowledge and relationships, development experience, industry expertise, financial resources, financing capabilities, brand recognition, and credibility or other competitive advantages. In the future, we may not have sufficient resources, experience and/or skills to locate desirable partners. We also may not be able to attract partners who want to conduct business in the locations where our properties are located, and who have the assets, reputation, or other characteristics that would optimize our development opportunities.

While we generally participate in making decisions for our jointly owned properties and assets, we might not always have the same objectives as the partner in relation to a particular asset, and we might not be able to formally resolve any issues that arise. In addition, actions by a partner may subject property owned by the joint venture to liabilities greater than those contemplated by the joint venture agreements, be contrary to our instructions or requests or result in adverse consequences. We cannot control the ultimate outcome of any decision made by our partners, which may be detrimental to our interests.

The bankruptcy or, to a lesser extent, financial distress of any of our joint venture partners could materially and adversely affect the relevant property or properties. If this occurred, we would be precluded from taking some actions affecting the estate of the other investor without prior court approval which would, in most cases, entail prior notice to other parties and a hearing. At a minimum, the requirement to obtain court approval may delay the actions we would or might want to take. If the relevant joint venture through which we have invested in a property has incurred recourse obligations, the discharge in bankruptcy of one of the other partners might result in our ultimate liability for a greater portion of those obligations than would otherwise be required.

Because real estate is illiquid, we may not be able to sell properties when in our best interest.

Real estate investments generally, and in particular large office and mixed-use properties like those that we develop and construct, often cannot be sold quickly. The capitalization rates at which properties may be sold could be higher than historic rates, thereby reducing our potential proceeds from the sale. Consequently, we may not be able to alter our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. All of these factors reduce our ability to respond to changes in the performance of our investments and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Some of our properties are subject to potential natural or other disasters.
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A number of our properties are located in areas which are subject to natural or other disasters, including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, and oil spills. We cannot predict the extent of damage that may result from such adverse weather events, which depend on a variety of factors beyond our control. Some of our properties, including Houston-area MPCs, Ward Village, and the Seaport are located in regions that could be affected by increases in sea levels, the frequency or severity of hurricanes and tropical storms, or environmental disasters, whether such events are caused by global climate changes or other factors. Additionally, adverse weather events can cause widespread property damage and significantly depress the local economies in which the Company operates and have an adverse impact on the Company’s business, financial condition, and operations.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Our MPC segment is highly dependent on homebuilders.

We are highly dependent on our relationships with homebuilders to purchase superpad sites and lots at our MPCs. Our business will be adversely affected if homebuilders do not view our MPCs as desirable locations for homebuilding operations or due to a change in demand, our inability to achieve certain pricing arrangements, or upon an overall decline in general market conditions. Also, some homebuilders may be unwilling or unable to close on previously committed lot purchases due to our failure to meet certain conditions in our agreements or otherwise. As a result, we may sell fewer lots and in certain instances suspend any of our MPC developments. This would result in lower land sales revenues, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.

The Seaport’s operational results are volatile, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.

The Seaport’s operational results are volatile. The increased volatility is largely the result of: (i) seasonality; (ii) potential sponsorship revenue; (iii) potential event revenue; and (iv) business operating risks from our various managed businesses. We own, either wholly or through joint ventures, and in some instances operate several start-up businesses in the Seaport. As a result, the revenues and expenses of these businesses directly impact the net operating income of the Seaport, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations. This is in contrast to our other retail properties where we generally receive lease payments from unaffiliated tenants and are not necessarily impacted by the operating performance of their underlying businesses.

We are exposed to risks associated with the development, redevelopment, or construction of our properties.

Our development, redevelopment, and construction activities expose us to risks such as:
inability to obtain construction financing for the development or redevelopment of properties
increased construction costs for a project that exceeded our original estimates due to increases in materials, labor, or other costs, which could make completion of the project less profitable because market rents or condominium prices may not increase sufficiently to compensate for the increased construction costs
supply chain issues and increased difficulty for workforce recruitment which may lead to construction delays and increased project development costs
claims for construction defects after a property has been developed
poor performance or nonperformance by any of our joint venture partners or other third parties on whom we rely
health and safety incidents and site accidents
easement restrictions which may impact our development costs and timing
compliance with building codes and other local regulations
the inability to secure tenants necessary to support commercial projects

If any of the aforementioned risks were to occur during the development, redevelopment, or construction of our properties, it could have a substantial negative impact on the project’s success and result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Our development projects may subject us to certain liabilities.

We may hire and supervise third-party contractors to provide construction, engineering, and various other services for wholly owned development projects or development projects undertaken by real estate ventures in which we hold an equity interest. Certain of these contracts are structured such that we are the principal rather than the agent. As a result, we may assume liabilities in the course of the project and be subjected to, or become liable for, claims for construction defects, negligent performance of work or other similar actions by third parties we have engaged.
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Adverse outcomes of disputes or litigation could negatively impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition, particularly if we have not limited the extent of the damages to which we may be liable, or if our liabilities exceed the amounts of the insurance that we carry. Moreover, our tenants and condominium owners may seek to hold us accountable for the actions of contractors because of our role even if we have technically disclaimed liability as a legal matter, in which case we may determine it necessary to participate in a financial settlement for purposes of preserving the tenant or customer relationship or to protect our corporate brand. Acting as a principal may also mean that we pay a contractor before we have been reimbursed by our tenants or have received the entire purchase price of a condominium unit from the purchaser. This exposes us to additional risks of collection in the event of a bankruptcy, insolvency, or a purchaser default. The reverse can occur as well, where a contractor we have paid files for bankruptcy protection or commits fraud with the funds before completing a project which we have funded in part or in full.

For example, we are directly paying the costs to repair certain construction defects at the Waiea condominium tower in Ward Village and will seek to recoup these costs from the general contractor and other responsible parties. We have subsequently entered into a settlement agreement with the Waiea homeowners association pursuant to which we have agreed to pay for the repair. We believe the general contractor is ultimately responsible for the defects and as such, we should be entitled to recover our repair costs from the general contractor, other responsible parties and insurance proceeds; however, we can provide no assurances that all or any portion of these costs will be recovered. Total estimated cost related to the remediation is $155.4 million, inclusive of $16.1 million of additional anticipated costs recognized in 2023.

Cybersecurity risks and incidents, such as a breach of the Company’s privacy or information security systems, or those of our vendors or other third parties, could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our tenants and business partners and personally identifiable information of our employees on our networks. The collection and use of personally identifiable information are governed by federal and state laws and regulations. Privacy and information security laws continue to evolve and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another. Compliance with all such laws and regulations may increase our operating costs and adversely impact our ability to market our properties and services.

Additionally, we rely on our information technology systems to be able to monitor and control our operations, adjust to changing market conditions and implement strategic initiatives. We own and manage some of these systems but also rely on third parties for a range of products and services. Any disruptions in or the failure of our own systems, or those managed by third parties, to operate as expected could adversely affect our ability to access and use certain applications and could, depending on the nature and magnitude of the problem, adversely affect our operating results by limiting our ability to effectively monitor and control our operations, adjust to changing market conditions, and implement strategic initiatives.

The security measures that we and our vendors put in place cannot provide absolute security, and the information technology infrastructure we and our vendors use may be vulnerable to criminal cyber-attacks or data security incidents.

Any such incident could compromise our networks or our vendors’ networks (or the networks or systems of third parties that facilitate our business activities or our vendors’ business activities), and the information we or our vendors store could be accessed, misused, publicly disclosed, corrupted, lost, or stolen, resulting in fraud, including wire fraud related to our assets, or other harm. Moreover, if a data security incident or breach affects our systems or our vendors’ systems, whether through a breach of our systems or a breach of the systems of third parties, or results in the unauthorized release of personally identifiable information, our reputation and brand could be materially damaged, and we may be exposed to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability, including, without limitation, loss related to the fact that agreements with our vendors, or our vendors’ financial condition, may not allow us to recover all costs related to a cyber-breach for which they alone are responsible or for which we are jointly responsible for, which could result in a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Like many companies, we and our third party vendors have been impacted by security incidents in the past and will likely experience security incidents of varying degrees. While we do not believe these incidents have had a material impact to date, privacy and information security risks have generally increased in recent years because of the proliferation of new technologies, such as ransomware, and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber-attacks. The rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence technologies may also intensify our privacy and information security risks. Further, there has been a surge in widespread cyber-attacks during and since the COVID-19 pandemic, and the use of remote work environments and virtual platforms may increase our risk of cyber-attack or data security breaches. In light of the increased risks, we have dedicated substantial additional resources of expense, labor, and time to
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strengthening the security of our computer systems. In the future, we may expend additional resources to continue to enhance our information security measures and/or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Despite these steps, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer a significant data security incident in the future, that unauthorized parties will not gain access to sensitive data stored on our systems, or that any such incident will be discovered in a timely manner. Any failure in or breach of our information security systems, those of third-party service providers, or a breach of other third-party systems that ultimately impacts our operational or information security systems as a result of cyber-attacks or information security breaches could result in a wide range of potentially serious harm to our business and results of operations.

Global economic and political instability and conflicts, such as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the more recent Israel-Hamas war, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Our business could be adversely affected by unstable economic and political conditions within the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions and geopolitical conflicts, such as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the more recent Israel-Hamas war. While we do not have any customer or direct supplier relationships in any of these countries, the current military conflicts and related sanctions, as well as export controls or actions that may be initiated by nations (e.g., potential cyberattacks, disruption of energy flows, etc.) and other potential uncertainties could adversely affect our supply chain by causing shortages or increases in costs for materials necessary for construction. These conflicts have already resulted in significant volatility in oil and natural-gas prices worldwide. In addition, such events could cause higher interest rates, inflation, or general economic uncertainty, which could negatively impact our business partners, employees, or customers, or otherwise adversely impact our business.

Some of our directors are involved in other businesses including real estate activities and public and/or private investments and, therefore, may have competing or conflicting interests with us.

Certain of our directors have and may in the future have interests in other real estate business activities and may have control or influence over these activities or may serve as investment advisors, directors, or officers. These interests and activities, and any duties to third parties arising from such interests and activities, could divert the attention of such directors from our operations. Additionally, certain of our directors are engaged in investment and other activities in which they may learn of real estate and other related opportunities in their non-director capacities. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics applicable to our directors expressly provides, as permitted by Section 122(17) of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the DGCL), that our non-employee directors are not obligated to limit their interests or activities in their non-director capacities or to notify us of any opportunities that may arise in connection therewith, even if the opportunities are complementary to, or in competition with, our businesses. Accordingly, we have no expectation that we will be able to learn of or participate in such opportunities. If any potential business opportunity is expressly presented to a director exclusively in his or her director capacity, the director will not be permitted to pursue the opportunity, directly or indirectly through a controlled affiliate in which the director has an ownership interest, without the approval of the independent members of our board of directors.

Pershing Square will have the ability to influence our policies and operations and its interests may not in all cases be aligned with other stockholders.

Pershing Square beneficially owns approximately 37.7% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, Mr. William Ackman, founder and chief executive officer of Pershing Square, is the chairman of our board of directors. Accordingly, Pershing Square will have the ability to influence our policies and operations, including the appointment of management, future issuances of our common stock or other securities, the payment of dividends, if any, on our common stock, the incurrence or modification of debt by us, amendments to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws and the entering into of extraordinary transactions, and its interests may not in all cases be aligned with other stockholders’ interests.

RISKS RELATED TO THE SPINOFF AND OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH SEAPORT ENTERTAINMENT

The spinoff of Seaport Entertainment into an independent publicly traded company may not be completed on the currently contemplated timeline, or at all, and we may not achieve some or all of the spinoff’s expected benefits.

On October 5, 2023, we announced our intent to form a new division, Seaport Entertainment, that is expected to include our entertainment-related assets in New York and Las Vegas, including the Seaport in Lower Manhattan and the Las Vegas Aviators Triple-A Minor League Baseball team, as well as our 25% ownership stake in Jean-Georges Restaurants and other partnerships and our 80% interest in the air rights above the Fashion Show Mall in Las Vegas. We are
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establishing Seaport Entertainment with the intent of completing its spinoff as an independent, publicly traded company in 2024, but there can be no assurance regarding the ultimate timing of the spinoff or that the spinoff will ultimately occur.

Completion of the spinoff is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining final approvals from our board of directors; the completion of the transfer of assets and liabilities to Seaport Entertainment in accordance with the separation and distribution agreement; due execution and delivery of the agreements relating to the spinoff; no order, injunction, or decree issued by any court of competent jurisdiction or other legal restraint or prohibition in effect preventing the consummation of the spinoff, the distribution, or any of the related transactions; acceptance for listing on a national stock exchange of the Seaport Entertainment shares to be distributed, subject to official notice of distribution; and no other event or development having occurred or being in existence that, in the judgment of our board of directors, in its sole discretion, makes it inadvisable to effect the spinoff. The spinoff is complex in nature, and unanticipated developments or changes, including changes in the law, macroeconomic environment, and competitive conditions of our markets, the uncertainty of the financial markets, and challenges in executing the spinoff, could delay or prevent the completion of the spinoff or cause the spinoff to occur on terms or conditions that are different or less favorable than expected.

Whether or not we complete the spinoff, our ongoing business may face material challenges in connection with the spinoff, including, but not limited to:
uncertainty about the effect of the spinoff on our employees and third parties with whom we conduct business, which may impair our ability to retain and motivate key personnel and could cause such third parties to defer or decline entering into contracts with us or seek to change existing business relationships with us
foreseen and unforeseen costs and expenses that we will incur in connection with the spinoff, including accounting, tax, legal, and other professional services costs
potential negative reactions from the financial markets if we fail to complete the spinoff in its currently intended form, within the anticipated timeframe or at all

If we do complete the spinoff, the anticipated benefits may not be achieved, may be delayed, or may be less advantageous than we anticipate for a variety of reasons, including that the actions required to separate the companies’ respective businesses could disrupt each company’s operations; following the spinoff, each company may be more susceptible to market fluctuations and other adverse events than if the companies were still combined; and following the spinoff the companies’ businesses will be less diversified than the combined businesses prior to the spinoff.

Seaport Entertainment may fail to perform its obligations under various transaction agreements that will be executed as part of the spinoff.

The separation and distribution agreement and other agreements we intend to enter into in connection with the spinoff will determine the allocation of assets and liabilities between us and Seaport Entertainment following the spinoff and will include any necessary indemnifications related to liabilities and obligations. We will rely on Seaport Entertainment after the spinoff to satisfy its performance and payment obligations under these agreements. If Seaport Entertainment is unable to satisfy these obligations, including its indemnification obligations, we could incur operational difficulties or losses that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

After the spinoff, certain HHH executive officers and directors may have actual or potential conflicts of interest because of their equity interests in Seaport Entertainment.

Because of their current or former positions with the Company, certain HHH executive officers and directors are expected to own equity interests in Seaport Entertainment. Their ownership of shares of common stock of Seaport Entertainment could create, or create the appearance of, potential conflicts of interest if we and Seaport Entertainment face decisions that could have implications for both companies after the spinoff.

If the distribution fails to qualify as a distribution under Section 355 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), we and our shareholders could incur significant adverse tax consequences.

The distribution is conditioned upon, among other things, our receipt of an opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP, tax counsel to HHH, regarding the qualification of the distribution as a distribution under Section 355 of the Code. There is no administrative or judicial authority that directly addresses facts that are substantially similar to those of the distribution, and the opinion of tax counsel is therefore not free from doubt. Moreover, the opinion of tax counsel will be based on, among other things, certain factual assumptions, representations, and undertakings from Seaport Entertainment and us, including those regarding the past and future conduct of the companies’ respective businesses and other matters. If any of these factual assumptions, representations, or undertakings is incorrect or not satisfied, we may not be able to rely on the opinion, and we and our shareholders could be subject to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. In addition, the opinion of tax counsel will not be binding on the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the IRS) or the courts, and, notwithstanding the opinion of tax counsel, the IRS could determine that the distribution does not so qualify or that the
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distribution should be taxable for other reasons, including as a result of a significant change in stock or asset ownership after the distribution.

If the distribution is ultimately determined not to qualify as a distribution under Section 355 of the Code, the distribution could be treated as a taxable disposition of common shares of Seaport Entertainment by us and as a taxable dividend or capital gain to our shareholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In such case, we and our shareholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax could incur significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

FINANCIAL RISKS

Our indebtedness and changing interest rates could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, or results of operations and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our Senior Notes and Loan Agreements.

As of December 31, 2023, our total consolidated debt was approximately $5.3 billion of which $2.1 billion was recourse to the Company or one of its subsidiaries. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, we have $69.3 million of recourse guarantees associated with undrawn financing commitments. As of December 31, 2023, our proportionate share of the debt of our unconsolidated ventures was $134.9 million based upon our economic interest. All of this indebtedness is without recourse to the Company, with the exception of the collateral maintenance obligation for Floreo.

Subject to the limits contained in the indentures governing the $475 million Bridgeland Notes due 2026, the $750 million 5.375% senior notes due 2028, the $650 million 4.125% senior notes due 2029, and the $650 million 4.375% senior notes due 2031 (collectively, the Senior Notes), and any limits under our other debt agreements, we may need to incur substantial additional indebtedness from time to time, including project indebtedness for developments by our subsidiaries. If we incur additional indebtedness or experience an adverse change in interest rates, the risks related to our level of indebtedness could intensify. Specifically, an increased level of indebtedness could have important consequences, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness, including the Senior Notes and Loan Agreements
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy, or finance other general corporate requirements
requiring us to make non-strategic divestitures, particularly when the availability of financing in the capital markets is limited, which may adversely impact sales prices
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flow to be allocated to debt service payments instead of other business purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flow available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, dividends, and other general corporate purposes
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including increases in interest rates, particularly given that certain indebtedness bears interest at variable rates
limiting our ability to capitalize on business opportunities, reinvest in and develop properties, and to react to competitive pressures and adverse changes in government regulations
placing us at a disadvantage compared to other less leveraged competitors, if any
limiting our ability, or increasing the costs, to refinance indebtedness
resulting in an event of default if we fail to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which default could result in all or part of our indebtedness becoming immediately due and payable and, in the case of our secured debt, could permit the lenders to foreclose on our assets securing such debt

The indentures governing our Senior Notes, the Loan Agreements and our other debt agreements contain restrictions that may limit our ability to operate our business.

The indentures governing our Senior Notes contain certain restrictions that may limit our ability to operate. In addition, the Loan Agreements contain representations and covenants customary for loan agreements of this type, including financial covenants related to maintenance of interest coverage ratios and loan-to-value ratios with respect to the certain mortgaged properties, taken as a whole. The Loan Agreements also contain customary events of default, certain of which are subject to cure periods. These restrictions limit our ability or the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to, among other things:
incur indebtedness or issue equity
create certain liens
pay dividends on, redeem, or repurchase capital stock or make other restricted payments
make investments
incur obligations that restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to make dividend or other payments to us
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 19

consolidate, merge, or transfer all, or substantially all, of our assets
enter into or amend lease or other agreements or transactions without consent
substitute collateral, if applicable, due to product and geographic concentrations
enter into transactions with our affiliates
create or designate unrestricted subsidiaries

Additionally, certain of our debt agreements also contain various restrictive covenants, including minimum net worth requirements, maximum payout ratios on distributions, minimum debt yield ratios, minimum fixed charge coverage ratios, minimum interest coverage ratios and maximum leverage ratios. The restrictions under the indentures and/or other debt agreements could limit our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs, make acquisitions, or pursue available business opportunities.

We may be required to take action to reduce our debt or act in a manner inconsistent with our business objectives and strategies to meet such ratios and satisfy the covenants in our debt agreements. Events beyond our control, such as changes in economic and business conditions, may affect our ability to do so. We may not be able to meet the ratios or satisfy the covenants in our debt agreements, and we cannot provide any assurance that our lenders will waive any failure to do so. A breach of any of the covenants in, or our inability to maintain the required financial ratios, under our debt agreements would likely result in a default under such debt agreements, which may accelerate the principal and interest payments of the debt and, if such debt is secured, result in the foreclosure on certain of our assets that secure such debt. A breach of any of the covenants in, or our inability to maintain the required financial ratios, under our debt agreements also would prevent us from borrowing additional money under such agreements that include revolving credit facilities. A default under any of our debt agreements could, in turn, result in defaults under other obligations and result in other creditors accelerating the payment of other obligations and foreclosing on assets securing such obligations, if any. Any such defaults could materially impair our financial condition and liquidity. In addition, if the lenders under any of our debt agreements or other obligations accelerate the maturity of those obligations, we cannot assure that we will have sufficient assets to satisfy our obligations under the notes or our other debt.

We may be unable to develop and expand our properties without sufficient capital or financing.

Our business objective includes the development and redevelopment of our properties, particularly those in our Strategic Developments segment, which we may be unable to do if we do not have, cannot obtain, or cannot generate sufficient capital from MPC land sales or operations, debt capital from lenders or the capital markets, or government incentives, such as tax increment financing, to proceed with planned development, redevelopment, or expansion activities. We may be unable to access or acquire financing due to the market volatility and uncertainty. We may be unable to obtain an anchor store, mortgage lender and property partner approvals that are required for any such development, redevelopment, or expansion. We may abandon redevelopment or expansion activities already underway that we are unable to complete due to the inability to secure additional capital to finance such activities. This may result in charge-offs of costs previously capitalized. In addition, if redevelopment, expansion, or reinvestment projects are unsuccessful, the investment in such projects may not be recoverable, in full or in part, from future operations or sale resulting in impairment charges.

The Company is dependent on the operations and funds of its subsidiaries, including The Howard Hughes Corporation.

The Company has no business operations of its own, and the Company’s only significant assets are the outstanding equity interests of its subsidiaries, including The Howard Hughes Corporation (HHC). As a result, the Company relies on cash flows from its subsidiaries, including HHC, to meet its financial obligations, including to service any debt obligations that the Company may incur from time to time in the future. Legal and contractual restrictions in agreements governing future indebtedness of any of the Company’s subsidiaries, as well as the financial condition and future operating requirements of any such subsidiaries, in each case, including HHC, may limit such subsidiaries’ ability to distribute cash to the Company. If HHC or any of the Company’s other subsidiaries is limited in its ability to distribute cash to the Company, or if the earnings or other available assets of the Company’s subsidiaries are not sufficient to pay distributions or make loans to the Company in the amounts or at the times necessary for the Company to meet its financial obligations, then the Company’s business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, and reputation may be materially adversely affected.

We are subject to risks associated with hedging arrangements.

We enter into interest rate swap agreements and other interest rate hedging contracts, including caps and cash settled forward starting swaps, to mitigate or reduce our exposure to interest rate volatility, or to satisfy lender requirements. These agreements expose us to additional risks, including a risk that counterparties of these hedging and swap agreements will not perform. There also could be significant costs and cash requirements involved to fulfill our obligations
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 20

under a hedging agreement. In addition, our hedging activities may not have the desired beneficial impact on interest rate exposure and have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may not realize the value of our tax assets.

Certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code could limit our ability to fully utilize certain tax assets if we were to experience a change in control. As of December 31, 2023, we have approximately $51.7 million of federal net operating loss carryforwards. If certain change in control events were to occur, the cash flow benefits we might otherwise have received could be decreased.

Inflation has adversely affected us and may continue to adversely affect us by increasing costs beyond what we can recover through price increases.

The U.S. economy has experienced an increase in inflation recently. Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of land, materials, and labor, which we have experienced in recent years due to higher inflation rates. Although we believe that sources of supply for raw materials and components are generally adequate, it is difficult to predict what effects price increases may have in the future. In addition, significant inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates, which have a negative impact on demand for homes in our MPCs and demand for our condominium projects, and our ability to refinance existing indebtedness on favorable terms, or at all, due to higher borrowing costs. In an inflationary environment, depending on the homebuilding industry and other economic conditions, we may be precluded from raising land prices enough to keep up with the rate of inflation, which could significantly reduce our profit margins. In recent years we have been experiencing increases in the prices of labor and materials above the general inflation rate. Our inability to offset increasing costs due to inflation through price increases to customers could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial conditions, and cash flows.

Some potential losses are not insured.

We carry comprehensive liability, fire, flood, earthquake, terrorism, extended coverage, and rental loss insurance on all of our properties. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits of these policies are adequate and appropriate. There are some types of losses, including lease and other contract claims, which generally are not insured. If an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we could lose all or a portion of the capital invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. If this happens, we might remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property.

REGULATORY, LEGAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS

Our development, construction, and sale of condominiums are subject to state regulations and may be subject to claims from the condominium owner’s association at each project.

A portion of our business is dedicated to the development and sale of condominiums. Condominiums are generally regulated by an agency of the state in which they are located or where the condominiums are marketed to be sold. In connection with our development and offering of condominium units for sale, we must submit regulatory filings to various state agencies and engage in an entitlement process by which real property owned under one title is converted into individual units. Responses or comments on our condominium filings may delay our ability to sell condominiums in certain states and other jurisdictions in a timely manner, or at all. Further, we will be required to transfer control of a condominium association’s board of directors once we trigger one of several statutory thresholds, with the most likely triggers being tied to the sale of not less than a majority of units to third-party owners. Transfer of control can result in claims with respect to deficiencies in operating funds and reserves, construction defects, and other condominium-related matters by the condominium association and/or third-party condominium unit owners. Any material claims in these areas could negatively affect our reputation in condominium development and ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Development of properties entails a lengthy, uncertain and costly entitlement process.

Approval to develop real property sometimes requires political support and generally entails an extensive entitlement process involving multiple and overlapping regulatory jurisdictions and often requires discretionary action by local governments. Real estate projects must generally comply with local land development regulations and may need to comply with state and federal regulations. We incur substantial costs to comply with legal and regulatory requirements. An increase in legal and regulatory requirements may cause us to incur substantial additional costs, or in some cases cause us to determine that the property is not feasible for development. In addition, our competitors and local residents may
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 21

challenge our efforts to obtain entitlements and permits for the development of properties. The process to comply with these regulations is usually lengthy and costly, may not result in the approvals we seek and can be expected to materially affect our development activities.

Government regulations and legal challenges may delay the start or completion of the development of our communities, increase our expenses, or limit our homebuilding or other activities.

Various local, state, and federal statutes, ordinances, rules, and regulations concerning building, health and safety, site and building design, environment, zoning, sales, and similar matters apply to and/or affect the real estate development industry. In addition, our ability to obtain or renew permits or approvals and the continued effectiveness of permits already granted or approvals already obtained depends on factors beyond our control, such as changes in federal, state, and local policies, rules, and regulations, and their interpretations and application.

Municipalities may restrict or place moratoriums on the availability of utilities, such as water and sewer taps. If municipalities in which we operate take such actions, it could have an adverse effect on our business by causing delays, increasing our costs, or limiting our ability to operate in those municipalities. These measures may reduce our ability to open new MPCs and to build and sell other real estate development projects in the affected markets, including with respect to land we may already own, and create additional costs and administration requirements, which in turn may harm our future sales, margins, and earnings.

Governmental regulation affects not only construction activities but also sales activities, mortgage lending activities, and other dealings with consumers. Further, government agencies routinely initiate audits, reviews, or investigations of our business practices to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, which can cause us to incur costs or create other disruptions in our business that can be significant. Further, we may experience delays and increased expenses as a result of legal challenges to our proposed communities, whether brought by governmental authorities or private parties.

We may be subject to increased compliance costs to comply with new and contemplated government regulations relating to energy standards and climate change.

A variety of legislation is being enacted, or considered for enactment, at the federal, state, and local levels relating to energy and climate change. This legislation relates to items such as carbon dioxide emissions control and building codes that impose energy efficiency standards. New building code requirements that impose stricter energy efficiency standards could significantly increase our cost to construct buildings. Such environmental laws may affect, for example, how we manage storm water runoff, wastewater discharges, and dust; how we develop or operate on properties on or affecting resources such as wetlands, endangered species, cultural resources, or areas subject to preservation laws; and how we address contamination. As climate change concerns continue to grow, legislation and regulations of this nature are expected to continue and to make compliance more costly. In addition, it is possible that some form of expanded energy efficiency legislation may be passed by the U.S. Congress or federal agencies and certain state legislatures, which may, despite being phased in over time, significantly increase our costs of building MPCs and the sale price to our buyers and adversely affect our sales volumes. We may be required to apply for additional approvals or modify our existing approvals because of changes in local circumstances or applicable law.

Energy-related initiatives affect a wide variety of companies throughout the U.S. and the world. Because our operations are heavily dependent on significant amounts of raw materials, such as lumber, steel, and concrete, energy-related initiatives could have an indirect adverse impact on our operations and profitability to the extent the manufacturers and suppliers of our materials are burdened with expensive cap and trade and similar energy-related taxes and regulations. Noncompliance with environmental laws could result in fines and penalties, obligations to remediate, permit revocations, and other sanctions.

We may be subject to potential costs to comply with environmental laws.

Future development opportunities may require additional capital and other expenditures to comply with laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. Under various federal, state, or local laws, ordinances, and regulations, a current or previous owner or operator of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances released at a property and may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage or personal injuries and for investigation and clean-up costs incurred by the parties in connection with the contamination. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release of the hazardous or toxic substances. The presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination may adversely affect the owner’s ability to sell or lease real estate or to borrow using the real estate as collateral. Other federal, state, and local laws, ordinances, and regulations require abatement or removal of asbestos-containing materials in the event of demolition or certain renovations or remodeling, the cost of which may be substantial for certain redevelopments, and also govern emissions of and exposure to asbestos fibers in the air. Federal
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 22

and state laws also regulate the operation and removal of underground storage tanks. In connection with our ownership, operation, and management of certain properties, we could be held liable for the costs of remedial action with respect to these regulated substances or tanks or related claims.

We cannot predict with any certainty the magnitude of any expenditures relating to the environmental compliance or the long-range effect, if any, on our operations. Compliance with such laws has not had a material adverse effect on our operating results or competitive position in the past but could have such an effect on our operating results and competitive position in the future.

Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act may be a significant cost for us.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended (ADA), requires that all public accommodations and commercial facilities, including office buildings, meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Other federal, state, and local laws may require modifications to or restrict further renovations of our properties with respect to such accesses. Noncompliance with the ADA or similar or related laws or regulations could result in the U.S. government imposing fines or private litigants being awarded damages against us. Such costs may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Catastrophic events, including climate change, may adversely affect our business.

As a result of climate change, we may experience extreme weather and changes in precipitation and temperature, all of which may result in physical damage or a decrease in demand for our properties located in the areas affected by these conditions. Should the impact of climate change be material in nature or occur for lengthy periods of time, our financial condition or results of operations would be adversely affected. In addition, many state and local governments are adopting or considering adopting regulations requiring that property owners and developers include in their development or redevelopment plans resiliency measures to address climate-change related risks. We may be required to incur substantial costs if such regulations apply to any of our properties. Additionally, COVID-19 disrupted our business and a resurgence of it, or another pandemic, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance and condition, operating results, and cash flows, and could materially adversely impact and cause disruption to, our business, financial performance and condition, operating results, and cash flows.

Water and electricity shortages could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Drought conditions and increased temperatures in the Phoenix, Arizona and Las Vegas, Nevada, regions could cause our master planned communities in these regions to experience water and electricity shortages. The lack or reduced availability of electricity or water in these regions may make it more difficult or expensive for us to obtain approvals for new developments and could limit, impair or delay our ability to develop or sell, or increase the cost of developing, our land in these master planned communities.

Tax increases and changes in tax rules may adversely affect our financial results.

As a company conducting business with physical operations throughout North America, we are exposed, both directly and indirectly, to the effects of changes in U.S., state, and local tax rules. Taxes for financial reporting purposes and cash tax liabilities in the future may be adversely affected by changes in such tax rules.

GENERAL RISKS

The Company may not obtain the anticipated benefits of the holding company structure.

The anticipated benefits of the holding company structure may not be obtained by the Company if circumstances prevent the Company from taking advantage of the strategic and business opportunities that it expects the structure may afford it. As a result, the Company may incur costs associated with the holding company structure without realizing the anticipated benefits, which could adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations.
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 23


Loss of key personnel could adversely affect our business and operations.

We depend on the efforts of key executive personnel. The loss of the services of any key executive personnel could adversely affect our business and operations. While we believe we have proper succession planning and are confident we could attract and train new personnel if necessary, this could impose additional costs and hinder our business strategy.

Possible terrorist activity or other acts of violence could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Future terrorist attacks in the U.S. or other acts of violence may result in declining economic activity, which could harm the demand for goods and services offered by tenants and the value of our properties and might adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities. Such a resulting decrease in retail demand could make it difficult to renew or re-lease properties at lease rates equal to or above historical rates. Terrorist activities or violence also could directly affect the value of our properties, including a high-profile property such as the Seaport, through damage, destruction or loss, and the availability of insurance for such acts, or of insurance generally, might be lower or cost more, which could increase our operating expenses and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. To the extent that tenants are affected by future attacks, their businesses similarly could be adversely affected, including their ability to continue to meet obligations under their existing leases. Any one of these events might decrease demand for real estate, decrease or delay the occupancy of new or redeveloped properties, and limit access to capital or increase the cost of capital.

Our stock price may continue to be volatile.

The trading price of our common stock is likely to continue to be volatile due to the stock market’s routine periods of large or extreme volatility. This volatility often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies, including ours. Factors that affect our trading price may include the following:
results of operations that vary from the expectations of securities analysts and investors, including our ability to finance and achieve operational success at the Seaport project
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates and investment recommendations by securities analysts and investors
announcements by us or our competitors of new significant real-estate developments, acquisitions, joint ventures, other strategic relationships or actions, capital commitments, or responses to these events
changes in general economic or market conditions, including increases in interest rates, or trends in our industry or markets
future sales of our common stock or other securities
guidance, if any, that we provide to the public, any changes in this guidance, or our failure to meet this guidance
the development and sustainability of an active trading market for our stock
changes in accounting principles
events or factors resulting from natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism, or responses to these events

These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our common stock is low. In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.

Anti-takeover provisions in our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws, Delaware law, stockholder’s rights agreement and certain other agreements may prevent or delay an acquisition of us, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain the following limitations:
the inability of our stockholders to act by written consent
restrictions on the ability of stockholders to call a special meeting without 15% or more of the voting power of the issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote generally in the election of our directors
rules regarding stockholder proposals and director nominations
the right of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval
a requirement that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, certain proceedings against or involving us or our directors or officers be brought exclusively in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware
that certain provisions may be amended only by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the shares of common stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 24

In addition, we are a Delaware corporation, and Section 203 of the DGCL applies to us. In general, Section 203 prevents an interested stockholder from engaging in certain business combinations with us for three years following the date that person becomes an interested stockholder subject to certain exceptions. The statute generally defines an interested stockholder as any person that is the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock or is our affiliate or associate and was the owner of 15% or more of outstanding voting stock at any time within the three-year period immediately before the date of determination.

We have granted a waiver of the applicability of the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL to Pershing Square Capital Management, L.P., PS Management GP, LLC and William A. Ackman (together, Pershing Square) such that Pershing Square may increase its position in our common stock up to 40% of the outstanding shares without being subject to Section 203’s restrictions on business combinations. As such, Pershing Square, through its ability to accumulate more common stock than would otherwise be permitted under Section 203, has the ability to become a large holder that would be able to affect matters requiring approval by Company stockholders, including the election of directors and approval of mergers or other business combination transactions. The Board’s Corporate Governance Guidelines reflect that it will grant to any stockholder a waiver of the applicability of Section 203 of the DGCL to the acquisition of up to 40% of the Company’s outstanding voting stock upon the request of such stockholder, subject to the Board’s fiduciary duties and applicable law.

These anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third-party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. These provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 25

Item 1C.  Cybersecurity
Risk Management and Strategy The HHH cybersecurity program is an enterprise-wide, risk-based program that is designed to support the security, confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our systems and information. We conduct periodic assessments of the cybersecurity program to identify and manage material cybersecurity threats and risks using internal teams and independent third parties. The assessment results are used to develop appropriate cybersecurity controls best practices and risk mitigation strategies, which are then implemented throughout the Company.

We rely on our systems and networks to support our business activities. As some of these networks and systems are managed by third parties, the HHH cybersecurity program also includes evaluation and monitoring of cybersecurity risks associated with its use of third-party service providers. We also leverage third-party experts and vendors to help manage our cybersecurity program, audit the effectiveness of our existing cybersecurity controls, and make recommendations for improvements and best practices. We utilize a Managed Detection and Response service that provides threat intelligence, technology, and specialist expertise to protect our systems and networks from cyber threats. We require all third parties with access to our information systems or data to maintain industry standard cybersecurity programs and to report actual or suspected security incidents to us.

We employ a range of tools and strategies to mitigate cybersecurity risks, regularly testing them for effectiveness. Additionally, we continuously assess and improve our cybersecurity stance by conducting vulnerability scans, internal and external network penetration tests, and by integrating threat intelligence updates. We also have specific tools to provide real time, continuous monitoring and protection of our endpoints. To the extent that our proactive monitoring and testing identifies weakness in our cybersecurity readiness, these weaknesses are tracked and remediated as part of our cybersecurity program. Our employees receive security awareness training on an annual basis and are subjected to phishing training and phishing tests throughout the year. Annually, we perform tabletop exercises to test our cybersecurity incident response plan that is kept within our written information security program (WISP). Our cybersecurity program is aligned with industry standards and best practices such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework.

As of the date of this report, we are not aware of any material risks from cybersecurity threats that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, along with all companies of a similar size, we face common cybersecurity threats. These threats include ransomware and denial-of-service, including sophisticated attacks from criminal ransomware groups and nation state actors. Our customers, supply-chain providers, and subcontractors face similar cybersecurity threats, and an incident impacting us or any of these entities could materially adversely affect our business operations.

Governance Management is responsible for measuring and managing cybersecurity risk, specifically the prevention, mitigation, detection, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents as well as the Company’s overall information security strategy, policy, and operations. The cybersecurity program is executed by the Company’s Senior Vice President of IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance, who has over 15 years of cybersecurity experience in overseeing and managing cybersecurity risk. He is also responsible for maintaining and, in the event of an actual suspected security incident, executing the Company’s WISP.

The Company’s Board of Directors recently formed a technology committee (the Technology Committee) to assume governance and oversight of HHH’s cybersecurity program from the Audit Committee. This includes reviewing the cybersecurity program’s strategy and effectiveness, the cybersecurity landscape and emerging threats, and reports from any cybersecurity events. The Technology Committee also oversees cybersecurity and digital strategy and, whenever necessary, will communicate with, or advise management to consult with, the Audit Committee regarding technology, digital, and other innovation-related matters that relate to or affect the Company’s internal control systems. The Technology Committee will actively participate in strategic cybersecurity decisions and will be responsible for approving major initiatives. Management will provide updates to the Technology Committee on a quarterly basis and will continue to provide updates to the full Board of Directors on an annual basis. When appropriate, the Technology Committee will inform the Board of Directors on important matters. Furthermore, the Board of Directors would be notified in accordance with the Company’s incident response plan, of any suspected cyber incidents that may have at least a moderate business impact on the Company.
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 26

Item 2.  Properties

Our corporate headquarters are located in The Woodlands, Texas. We also maintain offices at certain of our properties nationwide, including Honolulu, Hawai‘i; New York, New York; Columbia, Maryland; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Scottsdale, Arizona. We believe our present facilities are sufficient to support our operations.

OPERATING ASSETS

In our Operating Assets segment, we own a variety of asset types including approximately 8.8 million square feet of retail and office properties, 5,587 wholly and partially owned multi-family units, and wholly and partially owned other properties and investments. Our assets in this segment are primarily located in and around Houston, Texas (The Woodlands and Bridgeland); Columbia, Maryland (Columbia); Las Vegas, Nevada (Summerlin); and Honolulu, Hawai‘i (Ward Village).

The following table summarizes certain metrics of our office assets within our Operating Assets segment as of December 31, 2023:
Office AssetsRentable Square Feet% LeasedAnnualized
Base Rent
(thousands)
(a)
Annualized
Base Rent Per
 Square Foot
(a)
Effective 
Annual Rent
(thousands)
(b)
Effective 
Annual Rent per
Square Foot 
(b)
Year Built /
Acquired / Redeveloped
The Woodlands
Creekside Park Medical Plaza(c)32,689—%$—$—$—$—2022
One Hughes Landing200,63965%3,43627.035,16540.632013
Two Hughes Landing197,95087%4,35325.156,71438.802014
Three Hughes Landing321,64996%7,70228.4311,67043.082016
1725 Hughes Landing Boulevard339,60858%4,81524.557,05135.952015
1735 Hughes Landing Boulevard318,237100%8,20225.7712,60739.622015
2201 Lake Woodlands Drive22,259100%47021.1387839.452011
Lakefront North258,05898%7,06928.0011,35644.972018
8770 New Trails(d)180,000100%2020
9303 New Trails98,28342%87421.201,45435.272011
3831 Technology Forest Drive97,360100%2,44425.103,71038.102014
3 Waterway Square227,61791%5,08527.477,83342.322013
4 Waterway Square217,95290%4,86726.937,52441.642011
The Woodlands Towers at The Waterway(e)1,395,59996%37,38830.4756,29745.882019
1400 Woodloch Forest94,27684%2,49331.982,69134.512011
4,002,176
Columbia
Merriweather Row(f)925,58479%18,33626.3718,89327.172012 / 2014
Columbia Office Properties67,06683%1,31923.771,60228.852004 / 2007
One Mall North99,80649%1,44429.491,59432.562016
One Merriweather209,959100%8,22239.168,58340.882017
Two Merriweather124,63994%4,00036.884,16838.432017
6100 Merriweather326,23798%8,18236.198,43237.302019
1,753,291
Summerlin
Aristocrat(d)181,534100%2018
1700 Pavilion265,89890%4,64835.464,64835.462022
One Summerlin207,29287%7,69443.247,95344.702015
Two Summerlin147,139100%5,54237.675,94040.372018
801,863
Total6,557,330
(a)Annualized Base Rent is calculated as the monthly Base Minimum Rent for the property for December 31, 2023, multiplied by 12. Annualized Base Rent Per Square Foot is the Annualized Base Rent for the property at December 31, 2023, divided by the average occupied square feet. 
(b)Effective Annual Rent includes base minimum rent and common area maintenance recovery revenue. Effective Annual Rent Per Square Foot is the Effective Annual Rent divided by the average occupied square feet.
(c)Creekside Park Medical Plaza was placed in service during the fourth quarter of 2022 and had no executed leases. Subsequent to year end, the Company completed the sale of this property for $14.0 million. As such, Annualized Base Rent and Effective Annual Rent are not applicable.
(d)These properties are build-to-suit projects entirely leased by a single tenant. Therefore, the Annualized Base Rent and Effective Annual Rent details have been excluded for competitive reasons.
(e)The Woodlands Towers at the Waterway includes 1201 Lake Robbins and 9950 Woodloch Forest.
(f)In 2023, the Company rebranded Merriweather Row (formerly 10 - 70 Columbia Corporate Center).

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 27

The following table summarizes certain metrics of our retail properties within the Operating Assets segment as of December 31, 2023, and does not include any retail square footage in our multi-family assets:
Retail PropertiesRentable Square Feet% LeasedAnnualized
Base Rent
(thousands)
(a)
Annualized
Base Rent Per
 Square Foot
(a)
Year Built / Acquired / Redeveloped
The Woodlands
Creekside Park West72,97697%$1,954$29.702019
Hughes Landing Retail125,709100%4,03536.232015
1701 Lake Robbins12,376100%53343.052014
20/25 Waterway Avenue51,543100%1,54438.412011
Waterway Square Retail21,513100%84939.552011
284,117
Bridgeland
Lakeland Village Center at Bridgeland67,94792%1,84533.012016
Columbia
Color Burst Park Retail(b)(c)12,410100%2020
Rouse Building(b)89,199100%2,77831.152014
101,609
Summerlin
Downtown Summerlin(d)803,14596%24,32931.852014 / 2015
Ward Village
Ward Village Retail - Pending Redevelopment356,72491%7,84824.062002
Ward Village Retail - New or Renovated500,01594%21,31045.252012 - 2023
856,739
Total2,113,557
(a)Annualized Base Rent is calculated as the monthly Base Minimum Rent for the property for December 31, 2023, multiplied by 12. Annualized Base Rent Per Square Foot is the Annualized Base Rent for the property at December 31, 2023, divided by the average occupied square feet. 
(b)In 2023, the Company rebranded Color Burst Park Retail (formerly Merriweather District Area 3 Retail) and Rouse Building (formerly Columbia Regional Building).
(c)Color Burst Park Retail is comprised of two buildings and each is entirely leased by a single tenant. Therefore, the Annualized Base Rent and Effective Annual Rent details have been excluded for competitive reasons.
(d)Excludes 381,767 square feet of anchors and 39,700 square feet of additional office space above our retail space.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 28

The following tables summarize certain metrics of our multi-family Operating Assets as of December 31, 2023:
Multi-family Assets
Ownership %
UnitsRetail Square Feet% Units LeasedAverage Monthly RateAverage Monthly Rate Per Square FootYear Built / Acquired / Redeveloped
The Woodlands
Creekside Park100%29295%$1,806$1.842018
Creekside Park The Grove100%36095%1,8061.842021
Millennium Six Pines100%31493%2,0302.112016
Millennium Waterway100%39397%1,7671.962012
One Lakes Edge100%39022,97195%2,2672.292015
Two Lakes Edge100%38611,41594%2,8612.872020
The Lane at Waterway100%16394%2,5972.362020
Bridgeland
Lakeside Row100%31296%1,8691.902019
Starling at Bridgeland100%35894%2,0012.052022
Wingspan(a)100%26315%2,5112.012023
Columbia
Juniper100%38255,67796%2,2062.472020
Marlow100%47232,60757%2,0782.662022
The Metropolitan50%38013,59195%2,3192.452015
TEN.m.flats50%43728,02697%2,2322.512018
Summerlin
Constellation100%12487%2,5642.292017
Tanager100%26796%2,4742.542019
Tanager Echo100%29421%2,6523.032023
Total5,587164,287
(a)Wingspan, our first single-family rental community in Bridgeland, welcomed its first residents in October 2023. As of December 31, 2023, 28% of the property has been placed in service, with an additional 35% being placed in service in January 2024. The remaining 37% is expected to be placed in service in the second quarter of 2024.

The following tables summarize certain metrics of our other Operating Assets as of December 31, 2023:
Other Assets
Ownership %
Asset TypeSize% LeasedYear Built / Acquired / Redeveloped
The Woodlands
Hughes Landing Daycare100%Daycare10,000 sq ft100%2019
Houston Ground Leases100%Ground leaseN/AN/AVarious
Stewart Title of Montgomery County, TX50%Title CompanyN/AN/A
Woodlands Sarofim20%Industrial129,790 sq ft84%late 1980's
The Woodlands Warehouse100%Warehouse125,801 sq ft100%2019
Summerlin
Hockey Ground Lease100%Ground leaseN/AN/A2017
Las Vegas Aviators100%Minor League Baseball TeamN/AN/A2017
Las Vegas Ballpark100%BallparkN/AN/A2019
Summerlin Hospital Medical Center5%HospitalN/AN/A1997
Ward Village
Kewalo Basin Harbor100%Marina55 acresN/A2019
Other
Parking Garages (a)100%Garage9,184 spacesN/AVarious
(a)Includes parking garages in The Woodlands, Columbia, and Ward Village.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 29

The following table summarizes our Operating Assets segment lease expirations:
$ in thousands
YearNumber of Expiring Leases (a)Total Square Feet ExpiringTotal Annualized Base Rent Expiring% of Total Annual Gross Rent Expiring
202496 519,920 $20,616 5.3 %
2025161 928,431 43,664 11.3 %
2026109 553,655 23,463 6.1 %
202777 902,884 38,148 9.9 %
202871 583,446 28,340 7.3 %
202976 599,875 29,196 7.6 %
203037 613,838 31,556 8.2 %
203137 381,187 20,275 5.3 %
203230 1,143,715 61,314 15.9 %
203337 595,768 31,770 8.2 %
2034+86 1,228,659 57,272 14.9 %
Total817 8,051,378 $385,614 100.0 %
(a)Excludes leases with an initial term of 12 months or less.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 30

MASTER PLANNED COMMUNITIES

Our MPCs are located in and around Houston, Texas; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Phoenix, Arizona and are summarized in the following table as of December 31, 2023:
Total GrossApprox. No.Remaining Saleable AcresAverage Price Per Acre (thousands) (b)Projected Community Sell-Out DateProjected Cash Margin (c)
CommunityLocationAcres (a)ResidentsResidentialCommercialResidentialCommercialResidentialCommercialResidential
BridgelandCypress, TX11,50623,0001,6711,055$501$7522035204678%
SummerlinLas Vegas, NV22,500127,0002,4625511,3091,1762043203980%
TeravalisPhoenix, AZ33,81015,80410,5317512062086208639%
The Woodlands (d)The Woodlands, TX28,545123,000357251,9239502026203497%
The Woodlands HillsConroe, TX2,0552,7006911673465322030203389%
Total98,416275,70020,66313,029
Floreo (e)Phoenix, AZ3,0298614577791512032203553%
(a)Encompasses all of the land located within the borders of the master planned community, including parcels already sold, saleable parcels, and non-saleable areas such as roads, parks and recreation areas, conservation areas, and parcels acquired during the year.
(b)Average Price Per Acre is the uninflated weighted-average land value per acre, which reflects current market values being attained by the Company on current projects or at new projects based on third-party market data.
(c)Projected cash gross margin represents the net cash margin expected to be received in the future and includes all future projected revenues less all remaining future projected cash development costs. The projected cash gross margin does not include remaining historical development costs incurred to date. Gross margin for each MPC may vary from period to period based on the locations of the land sold and the related costs associated with developing the land sold.
(d)The Woodlands residential land development is nearing completion.
(e)The Company owns a 50% interest in this unconsolidated venture, however the data above is presented at 100%. See below for additional detail.

The Summit

Within our Summerlin MPC, an exclusive luxury community named The Summit is being developed and managed through a joint venture with Discovery Land Company (Discovery), a leading developer of luxury communities and private clubs. The original 555-acre community is nearing completion and consists of approximately 270 homes including 32 condominiums. In 2022, the Company contributed an additional 54 acres to The Summit adjacent to the existing Summit community to develop approximately 28 custom home sites. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 2 - Investments in Unconsolidated Ventures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further details.

Floreo

Floreo, the first village to be developed in our Teravalis MPC, will be developed and managed through a 50% joint venture. The 3,029-acre village is located in the greater Phoenix, Arizona area and is expected to consist of approximately 5,000 residential lots, commercial sites, as well as a planned business park. The first Floreo land sales were contracted as of December 31, 2023, and are expected to close in the first quarter of 2024. See Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 2 - Investments in Unconsolidated Ventures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further details.
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 31

SEAPORT

The Seaport, located on the East River in Lower Manhattan, encompasses several city blocks (inclusive of Historic Area/Uplands, Pier 17, Tin Building, and the 250 Water Street development) and totals approximately 472,000 square feet of innovative culinary, entertainment, and cultural experiences.

The following table summarizes certain metrics of the Seaport as of December 31, 2023:
$ in thousandsLandlord Operations (a)Landlord Operations - Multi-family (b)Managed Businesses (c)Tin Building (d)Events and Sponsorships (e)Total
Rentable Square Feet / Units
Total square feet / units342,67413,000/2151,45853,78324,577
Leased square feet / units(f)201,223/2145,84653,78324,577
% Leased(f)59%—%/100%89%100%100%
Development
Development costs incurred(g)$ 567,414$ —$ —$ 201,579$ —768,993 
(a)Landlord Operations represents physical real estate in the Historic District and Pier 17 developed and owned by HHH and leased to third parties.
(b)Landlord Operations - Multi-family represents 85 South Street which includes base-level retail in addition to residential units.
(c)Managed Businesses represents retail and food and beverage businesses in the Historic District and Pier 17 that HHH owns, either wholly or through joint ventures, and operates, including through license and management agreements.
(d)The Company owns 100% of the Tin Building and leases 100% of the space to the Tin Building by Jean-Georges joint venture, in which the Company has an equity ownership interest.
(e)Events and Sponsorships includes private events, catering, sponsorships, concert series, and other rooftop activities.
(f)The square footage and percent leased for Landlord Operations includes agreements with terms of less than one year.
(g)Development costs incurred are shown net of insurance proceeds of approximately $64.7 million and excludes any impact related to the Seaport impairment recognized in 2023. Refer to Note 4 - Impairment in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional detail.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 32

STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENTS

We continue to plan, develop, and hold or seek development rights for unique properties primarily in Ward Village, The Woodlands, Bridgeland, Summerlin, Columbia, and Teravalis. We continue to execute our strategic plans for developing several of these assets with construction either actively underway or pending. Strategic Developments are transferred into our Operating Assets segment when the asset is placed in service.

The following table summarizes our Strategic Developments projects under construction as of December 31, 2023:
$ in thousandsAsset TypeLocationSize (a)Total Estimated Cost (b)Estimated CompletionEstimated Stabilization Date
Strategic Developments Under Construction
Columbia
10285 Lakefront Medical Office (c)OfficeColumbia, MD86,000 sq ft$49,930Q2 20242027
Summerlin
Meridian (c)OfficeLas Vegas, NV147,000 sq ft55,459Q1 20242027
Summerlin Grocery Anchored CenterRetailLas Vegas, NV67,000 sq ft46,372Q3 20242027
The Woodlands
1 Riva RowMulti-FamilyThe Woodlands, TX268 units155,99720252028
Ward Village
Under Construction
The Park Ward Village CondominiumHonolulu, HI545 units / 26,800 sq ft605,1502026N/A
Ulana Ward Village CondominiumHonolulu, HI696 units / 32,100 sq ft402,9142025N/A
Victoria Place CondominiumHonolulu, HI349 units511,343Q4 2024N/A
Completed and Sold Out
‘A‘ali‘i CondominiumHonolulu, HI750 units / 11,175 sq ft394,908CompletedN/A
Ae‘o CondominiumHonolulu, HI465 units / 70,800 sq ft430,737CompletedN/A
Anaha CondominiumHonolulu, HI317 units / 16,048 sq ft403,974CompletedN/A
Ke Kilohana CondominiumHonolulu, HI423 units / 28,386 sq ft218,406CompletedN/A
Kō'ula CondominiumHonolulu, HI565 units / 36,995 sq ft487,039CompletedN/A
Waiea CondominiumHonolulu, HI177 units / 7,716 sq ft624,254CompletedN/A
(a)For condominium units and multi-family assets, square feet represents ground floor retail space whereas units represents residential units for sale or rent.
(b)As of December 31, 2023, total estimated cost remaining to be spent on these properties was $1.3 billion, of which $207.5 million is expected to be funded by HHH with the remaining cost to be funded with existing debt.
(c)In 2023, the Company rebranded 10285 Lakefront Medical Office (formerly South Lake Medical Office Building) and Meridian (formerly Summerlin South Office).

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 33

The following table summarizes future Strategic Developments projects as of December 31, 2023:

$ in thousandsLocationSize
Future Strategic Developments Rights or Pending Construction
Columbia
Lakefront District (a)Columbia, MD1,914,000 sq ft
Bridgeland
Village Green at Bridgeland Central (b)Houston, TX28,000 sq ft
Summerlin
80% Interest in Fashion Show Air Rights Las Vegas, NV
The Woodlands
Grogan's Mill Village Center (c)The Woodlands, TX79,000 sq ft
2000 Woodlands Parkway (d)The Woodlands, TX7,900 sq ft
Ward Village
Kalae Honolulu, HI329 units / 2,000 sq ft
Other
West End Alexandria (e)Alexandria, VA41 acres
Commercial Land
The Woodlands
The Woodlands Commercial Land (f)The Woodlands, TX13 acres
Columbia
Columbia Commercial Land (f)(g)Columbia, MD96 acres
Merriweather District (f)Columbia, MD15 acres
Ward Village
Ward Commercial Land (f)Honolulu, HI10 acres
(a)Represents remaining square footage approved for new mixed-use development in the Lakefront District which will include office, retail, and residential assets.
(b)This development will be anchored by 110,000 square feet of grocery space currently being constructed by H-E-B under a ground lease. The additional 28,000 square feet of retail space shown above will be constructed by HHH. The Company closed on the related construction loan in December 2023, and expects to begin construction in early 2024.
(c)Grogan’s Mill Village Center was acquired in 2023 and is being held in the Strategic Developments segment for planned redevelopment.
(d)2000 Woodlands Parkway was transferred to Strategic Developments in the fourth quarter of 2023 and is currently pending redevelopment.
(e)Represents acreage owned through a joint venture.
(f)Represents land acquired or transferred to the Strategic Developments segment for future development, excluding acreage related to assets that are now in service in our Operating Assets segment or related to completed or under construction condominium towers.
(g)Columbia MPC land development is complete and the sale of remaining land or development of additional commercial assets will occur as the market dictates. As such, the remaining Columbia MPC land was transferred to the Strategic Developments segment in the first quarter of 2023.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 34

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

We, as part of our normal business activities, are a party to a number of legal proceedings. Management periodically assesses our liabilities and contingencies in connection with these matters based upon the latest information available. We disclose material pending legal proceedings pursuant to Securities and Exchange Commission rules and other pending matters as we may determine to be appropriate. As of December 31, 2023, management believes that any monetary liability or financial impact of claims or potential claims to which we might be subject after final adjudication of any legal procedures would not be material to our financial position or our results of operations. See Note 10 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosure
 
Not applicable.

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 35

PART II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

During the third quarter of 2023, the Company became the successor issuer of HHC pursuant to Rule 12g-3(a) under the Exchange Act as of August 11, 2023.

MARKET INFORMATION

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the NYSE) under the ticker symbol “HHH”. No dividends have been declared or paid in 2023 or 2022. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, restrictions under debt agreements, financial condition, future prospects, and other factors the board of directors may deem relevant.

NUMBER OF HOLDERS OF RECORD

As of February 20, 2024, there were 1,154 stockholders of record of our common stock.

PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The following performance graph compares the yearly dollar change in the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total returns of the NYSE Composite Index, MSCI US REIT Index, and the S&P 500 Real Estate Index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our common stock and in each of the indexes during the last five fiscal years ended December 31, 2023. The graph was prepared based on the assumption that dividends have been reinvested subsequent to the initial investment. Stockholder returns over the indicated period are based on historical data and should not be considered indicative of future stockholder returns.
https://cdn.kscope.io/70fbd450b3fbf74076b22fe06e36695f-2023 Performance Graph.jpg
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 36

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER

The following sets forth information with respect to the equity compensation plans available to employees and directors of the Company at December 31, 2023:
Plan Category(a)
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants, and rights (1)
(b)
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants, and rights
(c)
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders (2)134,337 $108.76 727,758 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total134,337 $108.76 727,758 
(1)The amounts shown in columns (a) of the above table do not include 393,698 outstanding Common Shares (all of which are restricted and subject to vesting requirements) that were granted under the Company’s 2020 Equity Incentive Plan and its predecessor, the Amended and Restated 2010 Incentive Plan (2010 Incentive Plan), as further described in Note 11 - Stock-Based Compensation Plans in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
(2)Reflects stock option grants under the Company’s 2020 Equity Incentive Plan and the 2010 Incentive Plan.

In March 2022, the Board authorized a share repurchase program pursuant to which the Company may, from time to time, purchase up to $250.0 million of its common stock through open-market transactions. The date and time of such repurchases will depend upon market conditions and the program may be suspended or discontinued at any time. During 2022, the Company repurchased 2,704,228 shares of its common stock under this program for approximately $235.0 million at an average price of $86.90 per share. All purchases were funded with cash on hand.

Following the Company’s holding company reorganization on August 11, 2023, HHC transferred to the Company, and the Company assumed sponsorship of all of HHC’s stock plans along with all of HHC’s rights and obligations under each plan.

The following sets forth information with respect to repurchases made by the Company of its shares of common stock during the fourth quarter of 2023:
PeriodTotal number of shares purchased (a)Average price paid per shareTotal number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programsApproximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
October 1-31, 202331 $66.79 — $15,009,600 
November 1-30, 20231,675 $73.45 — $15,009,600 
December 1-31, 202310,127 $85.55 — $15,009,600 
Total11,833 $83.79 — 
(a)During the fourth quarter of 2023, all 11,833 shares repurchased related to stock received by the Company for the payment of withholding taxes due on employee share issuances under share-based compensation plans. For additional information, see Note 11 - Stock-Based Compensation Plans in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Item 6.  [Reserved]

HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 37

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Item 7.  Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes filed as a part of this Annual Report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors, including those described in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report. These factors and others not currently known to us could cause our financial results in 2023 and subsequent fiscal years to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, those forward-looking statements. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on this information which speaks only as of the date of this report. We are not obligated to update this information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required by law.

This section of our Form 10-K discusses 2023 and 2022 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022. Discussion of 2021 and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of The Howard Hughes Corporation’s Annual Report Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.

All references to numbered Notes are to specific Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report and which descriptions are incorporated into the applicable response by reference. Capitalized terms used, but not defined, in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) have the same meanings as in such Notes.

IndexPage
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 38

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OVERVIEW
OVERVIEW

General Overview Please refer to Item 1. Business for a general discussion of our business strategy, competitive strengths, and a general description of the assets contained in our four business segments and Item 2. Properties for details regarding the asset type, size, location, and key metrics about our various properties. Changes for monetary amounts between periods presented are calculated based on the amounts in thousands of dollars stated in our consolidated financial statements and then rounded to the nearest million. Therefore, certain changes may not recalculate based on the amounts rounded to the nearest million.

We are primarily focused on creating shareholder value by increasing our per-share net asset value. Often, the nature of our business results in short-term volatility in our net income due to the timing of Master Planned Communities (MPC) land sales, recognition of condominium revenue, and operating business pre-opening expenses.

2023 Results During 2023, we maintained positive momentum and delivered solid financial results which met or exceeded our 2023 guidance expectations within each of our core businesses. This strong performance is a testament to our premier communities and best-in-class assets, further highlighting the strength of our unique business model.

In our MPCs, a year-over-year increase of 45% in new homes sales in our communities, led to heightened demand and home builder interest for new land parcels as the year progressed. MPC earnings before taxes (EBT) increased 21% year over year, driven by solid land sales and high residential prices per acre.

In Operating Assets, we delivered another full-year net operating income (NOI) record, outpacing 2022 results by 5%, excluding dispositions. This growth was led by strong leasing velocity at our newest multi-family developments, as well as increased occupancy and absorption within our office portfolio. In 2023, our leasing teams executed 581,000 square feet of new or expanded office leases, bringing our stabilized office assets to 88% leased at year-end and setting the stage for considerable NOI growth in the coming years.

Ward Village had another strong year, selling out all remaining condo inventory at ‘A‘ali‘i and Kō'ula and contracting to sell 78 units at our three condo towers in pre-sales, The Park Ward Village, Ulana Ward Village, and Kalae. Together with Victoria Place, which is fully sold out and expected to be delivered in late 2024, these projects were 96% pre-sold at year-end and represent more than $2.6 billion of future contracted revenue that will be recognized as these projects are completed.

2024 Outlook Proceeding into 2024, we maintain a positive long-term outlook for our businesses. Across our MPCs, we see incredibly strong demand for our unmatched landbank, world-class portfolio of operating assets, and premier condo developments. The anticipated spin-off of Seaport Entertainment later in 2024 will allow Howard Hughes Holdings Inc. (HHH or the Company) to better focus on long-term opportunities within our renowned portfolio of master planned communities and enable considerable growth and value creation in the years to come.

MPC EBT is projected to remain robust during 2024, aided by modest anticipated reductions in mortgage rates and tight supply of existing homes on the market. New home sales in Summerlin, Bridgeland, and The Woodlands Hills are expected to be strong, leading to continued homebuilder demand for residential land. The first land sales in Floreo, the first village in Teravalis, are also expected to contribute incremental EBT in 2024. These year-over-year gains are expected to be more than offset by reduced EBT associated with exceptional commercial land sales and builder price participation during 2023, as well as reduced inventory of custom lots available to sell at Aria Isle in The Woodlands and the Summit in Summerlin. As a result, 2024 MPC EBT is expected to modestly decline 10% to 15% year-over-year.

Operating Assets NOI is projected to benefit from increased occupancy at new multi-family developments in Downtown Columbia, Summerlin, and Bridgeland, as well as improved retail leasing and new tenants in Downtown Columbia, Ward Village, and The Woodlands. The office portfolio is expected to benefit from strong leasing momentum experienced since mid-2022, but free rent periods on many of the new leases and the impact of some tenant vacancies and new office developments expected to be completed in 2024 will likely result in office NOI being relatively flat year-over-year. Overall, 2024 Operating Assets NOI is expected to be in a range of up 1% to 4% year-over-year. This includes projected NOI from The Las Vegas Aviators and the Las Vegas Ballpark, which are expected to be included in the spin-off of Seaport Entertainment.

Condo sales revenues are projected to range between $675 million and $725 million, with gross margins between 28% to 30%. Projected condo sales revenues will be driven by the closing of units at Victoria Place, our 349-unit upscale development in Ward Village, which is 100% pre-sold and expected to be completed late in the fourth quarter of 2024. This guidance contemplates a portion of condo sales revenues for Victoria Place occurring in the first quarter of 2025 due to the timing of condo closings.
HHH 2023 FORM 10-K | 39

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OVERVIEW

 2023 Highlights

Overall
Net income attributable to common stockholders decreased to a net loss of $551.8 million in 2023, including an after-tax impairment of $548.5 million related to the Seaport. This compares to net income of $184.5 million for the prior year. Excluding the after-tax impairment, the year-over-year reduction was primarily attributed to the timing of condo sales as the prior year included the delivery of Kō'ula in Ward Village.
We continue to maintain a strong liquidity position with $631.5 million of cash and cash equivalents, $1.0 billion of undrawn lender commitment available to be drawn for property development, and limited near-term debt maturities.
During 2023, we completed the sale of two land parcels in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, including an 11,929-square-foot building at the Ward Village Retail property, two self-storage facilities in The Woodlands, and Memorial Hermann Medical Office in The Woodlands for total net proceeds after debt repayment of $43.3 million.

Operating Assets
Operating Assets NOI totaled $233.6 million in 2023, a $7.9 million increase compared to $225.8 million in the prior year. Excluding the impact of dispositions in 2022 and 2023, Operating Assets NOI increased $11.5 million compared to the prior-year period.
Multi-family NOI increased $7.3 million primarily due to continued lease-up at our newer properties, Marlow in Downtown Columbia and Starling at Bridgeland, and rent growth across our portfolio.
Office NOI increased $6.6 million, primarily due to continued lease-up activity and abatement expirations at various properties in The Woodlands, most notably at 9950 Woodloch Forest and Lakefront North, and one-time lease termination fees at 1725 Hughes Landing. These increases are partially offset by decreases related to lower occupancy at One Hughes Landing, 1725 Hughes Landing, and various properties in Downtown Columbia, rent abatements at 3 Waterway Square, and initial operating losses from 1700 Pavilion in Summerlin.
Retail NOI remained relatively flat in 2023 compared to the prior year.

MPC
MPC EBT totaled $341.4 million in 2023, a $58.4 million increase compared to $283.0 million in the prior year.
The increase in EBT was primarily due to increased residential land sales in Summerlin, a higher overall residential price per acre in our MPCs, and higher equity earnings at The Summit primarily related to Phase II land inventory.

Seaport
During 2023, the Company recorded an impairment charge related to the Seaport segment. For additional information, refer to Note 4 -